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Research Papers

Development of a New Low-Cost Tandem Variable Geometry Turbocharging Concept for Turbocharger Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Rodrigo R. Erdmenger

GE Global Research,
Munich 85748, Germany
e-mail: rodrigo.rodriguez_erdmenger@ge.com

Katya Menter

GE Global Research,
Munich 83627, Germany
e-mail: katya.menter@gmail.com

Rogier Giepman

GE Global Research,
Munich 85748, Germany
e-mail: rogier.giepman@ge.com

Cathal Clancy

GE Global Research,
Munich SN16 9FX, Germany
e-mail: clancyca@gmail.com

Aneesh Vadvadgi

GE Global Research,
Bangalore 560066, India
e-mail: Aneesh.Vadvadgi@ge.com

Tom Lavertu

GE Global Research,
Niskayuna, NY 12309-1027
e-mail: lavertut@ge.com

Thomas Leonard

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Clean Energies Research
Centre in Sustainable Energy,
Queens University of Belfast,
Belfast 69126, UK
e-mail: tleonard06@qub.ac.uk

Stephen Spence

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Clean Energies Research Centre
in Sustainable Energy,,
Queens University of Belfast (QUB),
Belfast BT9 5AH, UK
e-mail: S.W.Spence@qub.ac.uk

1Present address: Dyson Ltd., Malmesbury BT9 5AH, UK.

2Present address: IHI Charging Systems International, Heidelberg 69126, Germany.

Manuscript received July 1, 2018; final manuscript received August 5, 2018; published online October 4, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(3), 031006 (Oct 04, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1411; doi: 10.1115/1.4041279 History: Received July 01, 2018; Revised August 05, 2018

The air handling system for large diesel/gas engines such as those used on locomotive, marine, and power generation applications require turbochargers with a high reliability and with turbomachinery capable to adjust to different operating conditions and transient requirements. The usage of variable geometry turbocharging (VGT) provides flexibility to the air handling system but adds complexity, cost and reduces the reliability of the turbocharger in exchange for improved engine performance and transient response. For this reason, it was desirable to explore designs that could provide the variability required by the air handling system, without the efficiency penalty of a conventional waste gate and with as little added complexity as possible. The current work describes a new low-cost variable geometry turbine design to address these requirements. The new tandem nozzle concept proposed is applicable to both axial and radial turbines and has been designed using conventional one-dimensional models and two- three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The concept has furthermore been validated experimentally on two different test rigs. In order to avoid the long lead times of procuring castings, the nozzle for the axial turbine was manufactured using new additive manufacturing techniques. Both the axial turbine and the radial turbine designs showed that the concept is capable to achieve a mass flow variability of more than 15% and provide a robust and cost-effective alternative to conventional VGT designs by significantly reducing the number of moveable parts.

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References

Vlaskos, I. , Seiler, M. , and Pierre, J. , 2004, “ Performance and Experience of the ABB TPL65VA Turbocharger With Variable Turbine Geometry on Medium Speed Gas Engines for Generator Operation,” ASME Paper No. ICEF2004-824.
Baets, J. , Bernard, O. , Gamp, T. , and Zehnder, M. , 1998, “ Design and Performance of ABB Turbocharger TPS57 With Variable Turbine Geometry,” Turbocharging and Air Management Systems, Paper No. C554/017/98.
Jacoby, P. , Xu, H. , and Wang, D. , 2013, “ VTG Turbocharging - A Valuable Concept for Traction Application,” CIMAC Paper No. 116.
Furukawa, H. , Yamguchi, H. , Takagi, K. , and Akihiro, O. , 1993, “ Reliability on Variable Geometry Turbine Turbocharger,” SAE Paper No. 930194.
Ogura, M. , and Shao, J. , 1995, “ Research Development of Variable Nozzle Turbocharger—Part 1: A New Axially Movable Turbocharger,” SAE Paper No. 952102.
Arnold, S. , Groskreutz, M. , Shahed, S. , and Slupski, K. , 2002, “ Advanced Variable Geometry Turbocharger for Diesel Engine Applications,” SAE Paper No. 2002-01-0161.
Chebli, E. , Casey, M. , Müller, M. , Sumser, S. , Hertweck, G. , and Schmid, W. , 2011, “ Innovative Variable Turbine Concept for Turbochargers,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45729.
Giesing, J. , 1964, “ Extension of the Douglas Neumann Program to Problems of Lifting, Infinite Cascades,” Bureau of Ships Fundamental Hydromechanics Research, Long Beach, CA, Report No. LB 31653.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Conventional VGT system

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Fig. 3

Two-dimensional (2D) code to estimate mass flow variability

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Fig. 4

Actuation mechanism

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Fig. 5

Parametrization of the geometry

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Fig. 6

Mesh generation y+ =0.4. Number 2D elements = 280,000.

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Fig. 7

2D CFD results at low PR conditions (mass flow variability 12%)

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Fig. 8

2D CFD. Relative Mach number distribution. Influence of Ch1, Ch2, and OV parameters.

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Fig. 9

Comparison of relative Mach number distribution

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Fig. 10

Comparison of efficiency and part load power

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Fig. 11

Fixed nozzle configuration at full load

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Fig. 12

Tandem VGT configuration at full load

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Fig. 13

Low-cost Tandem VGT concept

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Fig. 14

Mass flow variability for axial concept (no rotor)

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Fig. 15

Mass flow variability for axial concept (no rotor)

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Fig. 16

QUB test rig schematic

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Fig. 17

Compressor and turbine configuration

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Fig. 19

Implementation of torque sensor

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Fig. 20

Radial tandem nozzle design

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Fig. 21

Mass flow variability (open versus closed)

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Fig. 22

Numerical results versus experiment (mass flow variability 12%)

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Fig. 23

Mass flow and efficiency (open)

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Fig. 24

Mass flow and efficiency (closed)

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