Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Ceramics

Multi-Lead Direct Current Potential Drop Method for In Situ Health Monitoring of Ceramic Matrix Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
Yogesh P. Singh

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Akron,
ASEC 504,
Akron, OH 44325
e-mail: ysingh@uakron.edu

Michael J. Presby

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Akron,
ASEC 504,
Akron, OH 44325
e-mail: mjp80@zips.uakron.edu

Manigandan Kannan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Akron,
ASEC 504,
Akron, OH 44325
e-mail: mk77@uakron.edu

Gregory N. Morscher

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Akron,
ASEC 504,
Akron, OH 44325
e-mail: gm33@uakron.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Ceramics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 30, 2018; final manuscript received August 5, 2018; published online October 4, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(3), 031301 (Oct 04, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1532; doi: 10.1115/1.4041271 History: Received July 30, 2018; Revised August 05, 2018

The method of direct current potential drop (DCPD) can be utilized as an effective and convenient approach for in situ damage detection, and as a nondestructive evaluation technique. We present the results from use of a multiprobe DCPD technique for in situ damage detection in loading of a SiC/SiC composite. It is shown that in three different modes of loading (monotonic, fatigue, and cyclic load–unload), the sensing capabilities of DCPD technique compare well to the techniques of modal acoustic emission (AE) and digital image correlation (DIC). It was also found that DCPD technique provides a far earlier warning of failure under fatigue loading than the other two methods. In addition, we show that strategically placed multiple voltage leads on the specimen surface provide a promising way of qualitatively determining the crack initiation site. Therefore, the use of multiple lead DCPD method, together with other techniques, provides a viable option for sensing damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) with complex geometries, and for applications at higher temperatures.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Mansour, R. , Singh, Y. P. , Kannan, M. , Morscher, G. N. , Abdi, F. , Ahmad, J. , Godines, C. , DorMohammadi, S. , and Choi, S. , 2017, “ Study of Interlaminar Fracture Properties of Ceramic Matrix Composites at Room and Elevated Temperatures,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-65168.
Smits, F. , 1958, “ Measurement of Sheet Resistivities With the Four-Point Probe,” Bell Labs Tech. J., 37(3), pp. 711–718. [CrossRef]
Wang, D. , Wang, S. , Chung, D. , and Chung, J. H. , 2006, “ Sensitivity of the Two-Dimensional Electric Potential/Resistance Method for Damage Monitoring in Carbon Fiber Polymer-Matrix Composite,” J. Mater. Sci., 41(15), pp. 4839–4846. [CrossRef]
Smith, C. E. , Morscher, G. N. , and Xia, Z. H. , 2008, “ Monitoring Damage Accumulation in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Electrical Resistivity,” Scr. Mater., 59(4), pp. 463–466. [CrossRef]
Smith, C. E. , Morscher, G. N. , and Xia, Z. , 2011, “ Electrical Resistance as a Nondestructive Evaluation Technique for Sic/Sic Ceramic Matrix Composites Under Creep-Rupture Loading,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., 8(2), pp. 298–307. [CrossRef]
Morscher, G. N. , Baker, C. , and Smith, C. , 2014, “ Electrical Resistance of Sic Fiber Reinforced Sic/si Matrix Composites at Room Temperature During Tensile Testing,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., 11(2), pp. 263–272. [CrossRef]
Mansour, R. , Maillet, E. , and Morscher, G. N. , 2015, “ Monitoring Interlaminar Crack Growth in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Electrical Resistance,” Scr. Mater., 98, pp. 9–12. [CrossRef]
Han, Z. , Morscher, G. N. , Maillet, E. , Kannan, M. , Choi, S. R. , and Abdi, F. , 2016, “ Electrical Resistance and Acoustic Emission During Fatigue Testing of Pristine and High Velocity Impact Sic/Sic Composites at Room and Elevated Temperature,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56507.
Simon, C. , Rebillat, F. , Herb, V. , and Camus, G. , 2017, “ Monitoring Damage Evolution of Sic f/[si b c] m Composites Using Electrical Resistivity: Crack Density-Based Electromechanical Modeling,” Acta Mater., 124, pp. 579–587. [CrossRef]
Presby, M. J. , Morscher, G. N. , Iwano, C. , and Sullivan, B. , 2017, “ Foreign Object Damage in 3D Woven Sic/Sic Ceramic Matrix Composites of Varying Architectures at Ambient and High Temperatures,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-63475.
Presby, M. J. , Mansour, R. , Kannan, M. , Morscher, G. N. , Abdi, F. , Godines, C. , and Choi, S. , 2017, “ Damage Characterization of High Velocity Impact in Curved SIC/SIC Composites,” Advances in High Temperature Ceramic Matrix Compo Sites and Materials for Sustainable Development; Ceramic Transactions, Volume CCLXIII, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 311–322.
Sutton, M. A. , Orteu, J. J. , and Schreier, H. , 2009, Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements: Basic Concepts, Theory and Applications, Springer Science & Business Media, New York.
Kumar, R. S. , 2017, “ Crack-Growth Resistance Behavior of Mode—I: Delamination in Ceramic Matrix Composites,” Acta Mater., 131, pp. 511–522. [CrossRef]
Singh, Y. P. , Mansour, R. , and Morscher, G. N. , 2017, “ Combined Acoustic Emission and Multiple Lead Potential Drop Measurements in Detailed Examination of Crack Initiation and Growth During Interlaminar Testing of Ceramic Matrix Composites,” Compos. Part A: Appl. Sci. Manuf., 97, pp. 93–99. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Photograph of a dog-boned specimen with a notch cut in the middle of one edge, painted area for DIC imaging, and the locations of 6 point contacts on top surface for DCPD measurement. Other 6 point contacts were placed on back surface of specimen at symmetrically opposite locations to the top point contacts. (b) A schematic of the specimen showing the locations of different probes, and current leads.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Change in ER as a function of notch length for different lead pair combinations. The lead pairs from notch side show clear increase in ER with increasing crack length, while pairs from far side are almost insensitive to crack length.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Measured direct current potential drops as a function of time. The data is for different pairs of leads from the top and the bottom surfaces of the specimen, and for testing via three different modes of loading: (a) monotonic tensile load, (b) loading in fatigue mode, and (c) cyclic load–unload.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Results from monotonic tensile loading experiment. (a) Applied Load and measured potential drop on left vertical axis, maximum cumulative AE energy, and crack length on right vertical axis. (b) Strain intensity distribution of top surface with corresponding optical images from DIC. The visible crack in the optical images is outlined in red for clarity. Note: Due to the speckle pattern, it is difficult to determine the precise location of the crack tip from the optical images.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Digital image correlation crack length analysis: (a) optical image, (b) DIC surface strain map, and (c) schematic of correlation windows used to determine COD

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Results from loading in fatigue mode: (a) measured potential drop on left vertical axis, maximum cumulative AE energy, and crack length on right vertical axis, (b) step fatigue loading, and (c) strain intensity distribution and optical images from DIC of the top surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Results from cyclic load–unload test:(a) Measured potential drop on left vertical axis; load, maximum cumulative AE energy, and crack length on right vertical axis, (b) graph (a) zoomed in for a small time interval for better resolution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparing strain intensity distribution from DIC with potential drops across different lead pairs in cyclic load–unload test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

(a) Direct current potential drop derivative for different lead pairs highlighting areas of interest where damage is occurring, and DIC images from the (b) top and (c) bottom surfaces of the specimen. Top picture shows lead locations on the top surface of the specimen. Lines connecting the leads represent the examples of length across which the potential difference is measured. Solid lines represent the path on the surface while the dotted lines are path going in the bulk. Bottom picture is the image of top surface of specimen after failure.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Direct current potential drop derivatives for different pairs of leads in cyclic load–unload test. The duration of test is broken into smaller time intervals for the sake of clarity, and graphs from (a)–(f) show the data in successive time intervals from the beginning to the end of the test.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Strain intensity distribution on the top surface of the specimen, obtained using DIC images recorded during cyclic load–unload test. Also shown are the load data to show the correspondence between the damage and the peak load of a cycle.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In