Research Papers

Numerical Investigation of Combustion and Emission With Different Diesel Surrogate Fuel by Hybrid Breakup Model

[+] Author and Article Information
Wenliang Qi

College of Power and Energy Engineering,
Harbin Engineering University,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: muyiren@hrbeu.edu.cn

Pingjian Ming

College of Power and Energy Engineering,
Harbin Engineering University,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: pingjianming@hrbeu.edu.cn

Ming Jia

School of Energy and Power Engineering,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China
e-mail: jiaming@dlut.edu.cn

Ye Peng

College of Power and Energy Engineering,
Harbin Engineering University,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: pengye@outlook.com

Chen Liu

College of Power and Energy Engineering,
Harbin Engineering University,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: liuchen_hrbeu@hrbeu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 16, 2018; final manuscript received August 12, 2018; published online November 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: David L. S. Hung.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(4), 041013 (Nov 20, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1070; doi: 10.1115/1.4041283 History: Received February 16, 2018; Revised August 12, 2018

Injection flow dynamics plays a significant role in fuel spray; this process controls the fuel–air mixing, which in turn is critical for the combustion and emissions process in diesel engine. In the current study, an integrated spray, combustion, and emission numerical model is developed for diesel engine computations based on the general transport equation analysis (GTEA) code. The model is first applied to predict the effect of turbulence inside the nozzle, which is considered by the submodel of hybrid breakup model on diesel spray process. The results indicate that turbulence term enhances the rate of breakup, resulting in more new droplets and smaller droplet sizes, leading to high evaporation rate with more evaporated mass. The model is also applied to simulate combustion and soot formation process of diesel. The effects of ambient density, ambient temperature, oxygen concentration and reaction mechanism on ignition delay, flame lift-off length, and soot formation are analyzed and discussed. The results show that although higher ambient density and temperature reduce the ignition delay and cause the flame stabilization location to move upstream, this is not helpful for fuel–air mixing because it increases the soot level in the fuel jet. While higher oxygen concentration has negative effects on soot formation. In addition, the model is employed to simulate the combustion and emission characteristics of a low-temperature combustion engine. The overall agreement between the measurements and predictions of in-cylinder pressure, heat release, and emission characteristics are satisfactory.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Westbrook, C. K. , Mizobuchi, Y. , Poinsot, T. J. , Smith, P. J. , and Warnatz, J. , 2005, “ Computational Combustion,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 30(1), pp. 125–157. [CrossRef]
Kong, S. C. , Patel, A. , Yin, Q. , Lingbeil, A. , and Reitz, R. D. , 2003, “ Numerical Modeling of Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Under HCCI-Like Conditions With High EGR Levels,” SAE Paper No. 2003-01-1087.
Sazhina, E. M. , Sazhin, S. S. , Heikal, M. R. , and Marooney, C. J. , 1999, “ The Shell Autoignition Model: Applications to Gasoline and Diesel Fuels,” Fuel, 78(4), pp. 389–401. [CrossRef]
Dhuchakallaya, I. , and Watkins, A. P. , 2010, “ Auto-Ignition of Diesel Spray Using the PDF-Eddy Break-Up Model,” Appl. Math. Model., 34(7), pp. 1732–1745. [CrossRef]
Dhuchakallaya, I. , and Watkins, A. P. , 2010, “ Application of Spray Combustion Simulation in DI Diesel Engine,” Appl. Energy, 87(4), pp. 1427–1432. [CrossRef]
Bajaj, C. , Ameen, M. , and Abraham, J. , 2013, “ Evaluation of an Unsteady Flamelet Progress Variable Model for Autoignition and Flame Lift-Off in Diesel Jets,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 185(3), pp. 454–472. [CrossRef]
Jia, M. , and Xie, M. Z. , 2006, “ A Chemical Kinetics Model of Iso-Octane Oxidation for HCCI Engines,” Fuel, 85(17–18), pp. 2593–2604. [CrossRef]
You, X. , Egolfopoulos, F. N. , and Wang, H. , 2009, “ Detailed and Simplified Kinetic Models of n-Dodecane Oxidation: The Role of Fuel Cracking in Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Combustion,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32(1), pp. 403–410. [CrossRef]
Chang, Y. C. , Jia, M. , Liu, Y. D. , Xie, M. Z. , and Yin, H. C. , 2013, “ Application of a Decoupling Methodology for Development of Skeletal Oxidation Mechanisms for Heavy n-Alkanes From n-Octane to n-Hexadecane,” Energy Fuels, 27(6), pp. 3467–3479. [CrossRef]
Wang, H. , Ra, Y. , Jia, M. , and Reitz, R. D. , 2014, “ Development of a Reduced n-Dodecane-PAH Mechanism and Its Application for n-Dodecane Soot Predictions,” Fuel, 136(10), pp. 25–36. [CrossRef]
Chen, W. , Shuai, S. , and Wang, J. , 2009, “ A Soot Formation Embedded Reduced Reaction Mechanism for Diesel Surrogate Fuel,” Fuel, 88(10), pp. 1927–1936. [CrossRef]
Kong, S. C. , Sun, Y. , and Rietz, R. D. , 2007, “ Modeling Diesel Spray Flame Liftoff, Sooting Tendency, and NOx Emissions Using Detailed Chemistry With Phenomenological Soot Model,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 129(1), pp. 245–251. [CrossRef]
Chang, Y. C. , Jia, M. , Li, Y. P. , Liu, Y. D. , Xie, M. Z. , Wang, H. , and Reitz, D. R. , 2015, “ Development of a Skeletal Mechanism for Diesel Surrogate Fuel by Using a Decoupling Methodology,” Combust. Flame, 162(10), pp. 3785–3802. [CrossRef]
Chang, Y. C. , Jia, M. , Liu, Y. D. , Li, Y. P. , and Xie, M. Z. , 2013, “ Development of a New Skeletal Mechanism for n-Decane Oxidation Under Engine-Relevant Conditions Based on a Decoupling Methodology,” Combust. Flame, 160(8), pp. 1315–1332. [CrossRef]
Lei, G. D. , 2008, “ The Application and Research of the Unstructured Grid FVM in the Turbulent Reaction Flow Simulation With Complex Geometries,” Ph.D. thesis, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, China. https://www.globethesis.com/?t=1100360272479302
Ming, P. J. , 2008, “ Development of Numerical Modeling for Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows Based on Unstructured Grids and Parallel Computing,” Ph.D. thesis, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, China.
Qi, W. L. , Zhang, W. P. , Ming, P. J. , Jia, M. , and Peng, Y. , 2017, “ Numerical Simulation of High-Pressure Fuel Spray by Using a New Hybrid Breakup Model,” Atomization Sprays, 27(12), pp. 999–1023. [CrossRef]
Qi, W. L. , Ming, P. J. , Zhang, W. P. , Jia, M. , and Wang, W. H. , 2018, “ Effect of Hybrid Breakup Modeling on Flame Lift-Off Length and Soot Predictions,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, (epub).
Qi, W. L. , Zhang, W. P. , and Ming, P. J. , 2017, “ Evaluation of Spray/Wall Interaction Models Under Conditions Related to Diesel Engines With a Hybrid Breakup Model,” 29th ILASS-Americas, Atlanta, GA, May 15–18.
Huh, K. Y. , Lee, E. , and Koo, J. Y. , 1998, “ Diesel Spray Atomization Model Considering Nozzle Exit Turbulence Conditions,” Atomization Sprays, 8(4), pp. 453–469. [CrossRef]
Reitz, R. D. , and Diwakar, R. , 1986, “ Effect of Drop Breakup on Fuel Sprays,” SAE Paper No. 860469.
O'Rourke, P. J. , and Amsden, A. A. , 1987, “ The TAB Method for Numerical Calculation of Spray Droplet Breakup,” SAE Paper No. 872089.
Patterson, M. A. , and Reitz, R. D. , 1998, “ Modeling the Effects of Fuel Spray Characteristics on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emission,” SAE Paper No. 980131.
Hiroyasu, H. , and Kadota, T. , 1976, “ Models for Combustion and Formation of Nitric Oxide and Soot in Diesel Injection Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 760129.
Nagle, J. , and Strickland-Constable, R. F. , 1962, “ Oxidation of Carbon Between 1000-2000 °C,” Fifth Conference on Carbon, University Park, PA, June 19–23, pp. 154–164.
Frenklach, M. , and Warnatz, J. , 1987, “ Detailed Modeling of PAH Profiles in a Sooting Low-Pressure Acetylene Flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 51(4–6), pp. 265–283. [CrossRef]
Yang, J. , Golovitchev, V. I. , Redon, P. , Javier, L. , and Sanchez, J. , 2011, “ Numerical Analysis of NOx Formation Trends in Biodiesel Combustion Using Dynamic ϕ-T Parametric Maps,” SAE Paper No. 2011-01-1929.
Liu, Y. F. , Ming, P. J. , Zhang, W. P. , Zhu, M. G. , and Ni, D. M. , 2009, “ An Efficient Lagrange Point Tracking Algorithm for Fixed Grids,” Chin. J. Comput. Phys., 27(4), pp. 527–532.
Amsden, A. A. , 1997, “ KIVA-3V: A Block-Structured KIVA Program for Engines With Vertical or Canted Values,” Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, Report No. LA-13313-MS.
Liu, A. B. , Mather, D. , and Reitz, R. D. , 1993, “ Modeling the Effects of Drop Drag and Breakup on Fuel Sprays,” SAE Paper No. 930072.
Nordin, N. , 2001, “ Complex Chemistry Modeling of Diesel Spray Combustion,” Ph.D. thesis, Chalmers University, Göteborg, Sweden.
Zhang, Y. Z. , Jia, M. , Liu, H. , Xie, M. Z. , Wang, T. Y. , and Zhou, L. , 2014, “ Development of a New Spray/Wall Interaction Model for Diesel Spray Under PCCI-Engine Relevant Conditions,” Atomization Sprays, 24(1), pp. 41–80. [CrossRef]
Han, Z. Y. , and Reitz, R. D. , 1995, “ Turbulence Modeling of Internal Combustion Engines Using RNG k − ε Models,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 106(4–6), pp. 267–295. [CrossRef]
Kee, R. J. , Rupley, F. M. , Meeks, E. , and Miller, J. A. , 1996, “ CHEMKIN-III: A FORTRAN Chemical Kinetics Package for the Analysis of Gas Phase Chemical and Plasma Kinetics,” Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, Report No. SAND96-8216.
Chang, Y. C. , 2016, “ Investigation of Skeletal Chemical Mechanisms for Diesel and Biodiesel Surrogate Fuel Based on Decoupling Methodology,” Ph.D. thesis, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.
Liu, Y. D. , 2013, “ Research on the Development of Skeletal Chemical Kinetic Models for Primary Reference Fuel and Gasoline Surrogate Fuel (TRF),” Ph.D. thesis, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.
Colket, M. , Edwards, T. , Williams, S. , Cernansky, N. P. , Miller, D. L. , Egolfopoulos, F. , Lindstedt, P. , Seshadri, K. , Dryer, F. L. , Law, C. K. , Friend, D. , Lenhert, D. B. , Pitsch, H. , Sarofim, A. , Smooke, M. , and Tsang, W. , 2007, “ Development of an Experimental Database and Kinetic Models for Surrogate Jet Fuels,” AIAA Paper No. 2007-770.
Naber, J. D. , and Siebers, D. L. , 1996, “ Effects of Gas Density and Vaporization on Penetration and Dispersion of Diesel Sprays,” SAE Paper No. 960034.
Siebers, D. L. , 1998, “ Liquid-Phase Fuel Penetration in Diesel Sprays,” SAE Paper No. 980809.
Siebers, D. L. , and Higgins, B. S. , 2000, “ Effects of Injector Conditions on the Flame Lift-Off Length of DI Diesel Sprays,” Thermal Fluid Dynamics Processes in Diesel Engines, Valencia, Spain, Sept. 14–15.
Higgins, B. , and Siebers, D. L. , 2001, “ Measurement of the Flame Lift-Off Location on DI Diesel Sprays Using OH Chemiluminescence,” SAE Paper No. 2001-01-0918.
Pickett, L. M. , and Siebers, D. L. , 2004, “ Soot in Diesel Fuel Jets: Effects of Ambient Temperature, Ambient Density, and Injection Pressure,” Combust. Flame, 138(1–2), pp. 114–135. [CrossRef]
Pickett, L. M. , and Siebers, D. L. , 2004, “ Non-Sooting, Low Flame Temperature Mixing-Controlled DI Diesel Combustion,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-1399.
Pickett, L. M. , Siebers, D. L. , and Idicheria, C. A. , 2005, “ Relationship Between Ignition Processes and the Lift-Off Length of Diesel Fuel Jets,” SAE Paper No. 2005-01-3843.
Liu, W. , Sivaramakrishnan, R. , Davis, M. J. , Som, S. , Longman, D. E. , and Lu, T. F. , 2013, “ Development of a Reduced Biodiesel Surrogate Model for Compression Ignition Engine Modeling,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 34(1), pp. 401–409. [CrossRef]
Som, S. , and Suresh, K. A. , 2010, “ Effects of Primary Breakup Modeling on Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engines,” Combust. Flame, 157(6), pp. 1179–1193. [CrossRef]
Hernandez, J. J. , Sanz-Argent, J. , Benajes, J. , and Molina, S. , 2008, “ Selection of a Diesel Fuel Surrogate for the Prediction of Auto-Ignition Under HCCI Engine Conditions,” Fuel, 87(6), pp. 655–665. [CrossRef]
Luo, J. , Yao, M. , Liu, H. , and Yang, B. , 2012, “ Experimental and Numerical Study on Suitable Diesel Fuel Surrogates in Low Temperature Combustion Conditions,” Fuel, 97(7), pp. 621–629. [CrossRef]
Jia, M. , Peng, Z. J. , and Xie, M. Z. , 2009, “ Numerical Investigation of Soot Reduction Potentials With Diesel Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion by An Improved Phenomenological Soot Mode,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 223(3), pp. 395–412. [CrossRef]
Lee, S. S. , 2006, “ Investigation of Two Low Emissions Strategies for Diesel Engines: Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) and Stoichiometric Combustion,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin-Wadison, Wadison, WI.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of GTEA combined with CHEMKIN

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The computational mesh

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Effect of different breakup models on vapor penetration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparisons of two Hybrid breakup models in terms of (a) liquid length and (b) evaporation rate and evaporated mass

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparisons of the ignition delay between experiments [44] and the predictions of the two mechanisms

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Computed temperature contours of n-decane and diesel surrogate mechanism for Pinj = 138 MPa, Tamb = 1000 K, ρamb = 1000 kg/m3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparisons of the lift-off length between experiments [41,44] and the predictions of the two mechanisms

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Time sequence of planar laser-induced incandescence images [42] and predicted soot mass fraction contours for Pinj = 138 MPa, Tamb = 1000 K, ρamb = 1000 kg/m3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparisons of fvsoot between experiments [42] and predictions for two ambient temperature conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Comparisons of the soot and lift-off length between the two mechanisms for various ambient conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Computational mesh

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of experimental [50] and modeling results for the pressure and heat release rate (fuel flow rate = 15.06 mg/cyc)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparisons of emissions of soot, CO, NOx, and HC between the simulations and measurements [50]



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In