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research-article

Gas Turbine Fouling Tests: Review, Critical Analysis and Particle Impact Behavior Map

[+] Author and Article Information
Alessio Suman

Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
alessio.suman@unife.it

Nicola Casari

Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
nicola.casari@unife.it

Elettra Fabbri

Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
elettra.fabbri@unife.it

Michele Pinelli

Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
michele.pinelli@unife.it

Luca di Mare

St John's College, University of Oxford, St Giles, Oxford, OX1 3JP, United Kingdom
luca.dimare@eng.ox.ac.uk

Francesco Montomoli

Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
f.montomoli@imperial.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4041282 History: Received July 29, 2018; Revised August 10, 2018

Abstract

Fouling affects gas turbine operation and airborne or fuel contaminants, under certain conditions, become very likely to adhere to surfaces if impact takes place. The consequences of these deposits could be dramatic: these effects can shut an aircraft engine down or derate a land-based power unit. Several methods to quantify particle sticking have been proposed in literature so far, and the experimental data used for their validation vary in a wide range of materials and conditions. Experimental tests have been carried out on (i) a full scale gas turbine unit, (ii) wind tunnel testing or hot gas facilities using stationary cascades, able to reproduce the same conditions of gas turbine nozzle operation and finally, (iii) wind tunnel testing or hot gas facilities using a coupon as the target. In this review, the whole variety of experimental tests performed is gathered and classified according to composition, size, temperature and particle impact velocity. Using particle viscosity and sticking prediction models, over seventy tests are compared with each other and with the model previsions providing a useful starting point for a comprehensive critical analysis. The historical data of particle deposition obtained over thirty years are classified using particle kinetic energy and the ratio between particle temperature and its softening temperature. Qualitative thresholds for the distinction between particle deposition, surface erosion and particle break-up are identified. The outcome of this paper can be used for further development of sticking models or as a starting point for new insight into the problem.

Copyright (c) 2018 by ASME
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