Research Papers

A Feasibility Study of Controllable Gas Foil Bearings With Piezoelectric Materials Via Rotordynamic Model Predictions

[+] Author and Article Information
Jisu Park

Department of Mechanical System
Design Engineering,
Seoul National University of
Science and Technology,
Seoul 01811, South Korea
e-mail: pjs9701@seoultech.ac.kr

Kyuho Sim

Department of Mechanical System
Design Engineering,
Seoul National University of
Science and Technology,
Seoul 01811, South Korea
e-mail: khsim@seoultech.ac.kr

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 27, 2018; final manuscript received August 16, 2018; published online October 16, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(2), 021027 (Oct 16, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1386; doi: 10.1115/1.4041384 History: Received June 27, 2018; Revised August 16, 2018

This study presents a new concept of controllable gas foil bearings (C-GFBs) with piezoelectric actuators. The C-GFB consists of a laminated top foil, bump foil, and piezo stacks and can simply change the bearing shape or film thickness locally and globally by varying the thickness of the piezo stacks with input voltages. The control schemes are (1) clearance control: the bearing clearance adjusted by changing overall piezo stack thickness, and (2) preload control: the mechanical preload modulated by the thickness expansion of several piezo stacks. Bearing lubrication performance is predicted for four cases of C-GFBs with different bearing clearances and preloads. The piezo stack control generates meaningful differences in the fluid-film thickness and pressure. Clearance control has a great effect on the dynamic force coefficients, but preload control slightly increases. Furthermore, the rotordynamic prediction of a rotor supported on two journal C-GFBs is conducted. As a result, both control modes for C-GFB are found to have a positive effect on rotordynamic amplitudes. Finally, using the orbit simulations, the C-GFB is controlled to have a small bearing clearance and large preload at critical speeds to make it possible to stably pass through the critical speeds. Consequently, it turns out that the C-GFB can improve bearing lubrication and rotordynamic performances by controlling only the input voltage of the piezo stacks. In addition, the C-GFB can be used to form various shapes to meet the operation conditions of an applied system.

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Fig. 1

Schematic views of (a) controllable GFB with piezoelectric actuators and (b) principle of the bearing preload control

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagrams of piezo stack, piezoelectric material, and coordinate system for piezo stack prediction model

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Fig. 3

Coordinate system of bearing lubrication model and an equivalent substructure model when only one piezo stack is activated to introduce the bearing preload

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Fig. 4

Predicted deformations of a piezo stack in the three-direction (a) versus input voltage when no load is applied to the piezo stack and (b) versus fluid film pressure when input voltage is fixed at 300 V

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Fig. 5

Assembled radial clearance profiles of four distinct C-GFB types (cases 1–4) having different bearing clearance and preload

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Fig. 6

Predicted (a) journal eccentricities and (b) journal attitude angles versus rotor speed for four cases of C-GFB. The static load in the vertical direction is 8.8 N.

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Fig. 7

Predicted midplane (a) fluid-film thickness and (b) fluid-film pressure distribution versus circumferential coordinate at a rotor speed of 100 krpm with 8.8 N static load in vertical direction

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Fig. 8

(a) Predicted synchronous direct stiffness coefficients in (a) vertical direction kXX and (b) horizontal direction kYY versus rotor speed with a structural loss factor of 0.1 and 8.8 N static load in the vertical direction

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Fig. 9

Predicted synchronous cross-coupled stiffness coefficients versus rotor speed in vertical and horizontal directions with a structural loss factor of 0.1 and 8.8 N static load in the vertical direction

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Fig. 10

Predicted synchronous direct damping coefficients in (a) vertical direction cXX and (b) horizontal direction cYY versus rotor speed with structural loss factor of 0.1 and 8.8 N static load in the vertical direction

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Fig. 11

Finite element rotordynamic model for rotor supported by two journal C-GFBs. The static loads at each C-GFB are 10.8 N and 8.8 N.

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Fig. 12

Case 1 predicted damped natural frequencies versus rotor speed of a rotor supported on two C-GFBs: (a) first six modes with bending and rigid modes, and (b) first four modes with rigid modes

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Fig. 13

Predicted (a) damped natural frequencies and (b) damping ratios of rotor supported on two C-GFBs for forward cylindrical modes

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Fig. 14

Predicted major amplitudes of synchronous motions versus rotor speed of rotor supported by two C-GFBs. Imbalances of 11.9 g mm were introduced at the side ends of the rotor.

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Fig. 15

Predicted vertical and horizontal transient responses versus time with piezo stack control at rotor speeds of (a) 5 krpm and (b) 12 krpm

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Fig. 16

Predicted rotor orbits with piezo stacks controlled at rotor speeds of (a) 5 krpm and (b) 12 krpm

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Fig. 17

(a) Minimum film thickness and (b) journal attitude angle versus static load at 30 krpm and 45 krpm. Comparison to prediction data in Ref. [25] and test data in Ref. [36].



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