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Research Papers

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Environmental Barrier Coated Ceramic Matrix Composite Turbine Airfoil Erosion

[+] Author and Article Information
Yoji Okita

Corporate Research and Development,
IHI Corporation,
Yokohama 235-8501, Japan
e-mail: youji_ookita@ihi.co.jp

Yousuke Mizokami, Jun Hasegawa

Aero-Engine and Space Operations,
IHI Corporation,
Tokyo 190-1297, Japan

Manuscript received July 17, 2018; final manuscript received August 17, 2018; published online October 4, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(3), 031013 (Oct 04, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1501; doi: 10.1115/1.4041385 History: Received July 17, 2018; Revised August 17, 2018

Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) have higher temperature durability and lower density property compared to nickel-based super-alloys which so far have been widely applied to hot section components of aero-engines/gas turbines. One of promising CMC systems, SiC–SiC CMC is able to sustain its mechanical property at higher temperature, though it inherently needs environmental barrier coating (EBC) to avoid oxidation. There are several requirements for EBC. One of such critical requirements is its resistance to particle erosion, whereas this subject has not been well investigated in the past. The present work presents the results of a combined experimental and numerical research to evaluate the erosion characteristics of CMC + EBC material developed by IHI. First, experiments were carried out in an erosion test facility using 50 μm diameter silica as erosion media under typical engine conditions with velocity of 225 m/s, temperature of 1311 K, and impingement angles of 30, 60, and 80 deg. The data displayed brittle erosion mode in that the erosion rate increased with impact angles. Also, it was verified that a typical erosion model, Neilson–Gilchrist model, can reproduce the experimental behavior fairly well if its model constants were properly determined. The numerical method solving particle-laden flow was then applied with the tuned erosion model to compute three dimensional flow field, particle trajectories, and erosion profile around a generic turbine airfoil to assess the erosion characteristics of the proposed CMC + EBC material when applied to airfoil. The trajectories indicated that the particles primarily impacted the airfoil leading edge and the pressure surface. Surface erosion patterns were predicted based on the calculated trajectories and the experimentally based erosion characteristics.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the hot wind tunnel for the erosion experiments [15]

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Fig. 2

Size distribution of the silica particles applied to the experiment

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Fig. 3

Scanning electron microscope image of applied particles

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Fig. 4

Cross section microphotographs of typical unpolished and polished specimens after erosion tests at 80 deg

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Fig. 5

Computational domain and mesh of the cascade in (a) overall view and (b) detailed 3D view near the trailing edge

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Fig. 6

Measured surface profiles along the centerline of typical polished CMC + EBC specimens after the erosion test at three tested impact angles

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Fig. 7

Comparison of measured erosion rate at three tested impact angles between polished and unpolished CMC + EBC specimens

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Fig. 8

Comparison of measured erosion rate normalized by 80 deg. condition at three tested impact angles between polished and unpolished CMC + EBC specimens.

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Fig. 9

Comparison between computed and measured erosion rates of polished CMC + EBC at three tested impact angle

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Fig. 10

Computed Mach number contours around the airfoil at the midspan section

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Fig. 11

Comparison of pressure coefficient distribution along the airfoil surface between numerical solution and measured data at the midspan section

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Fig. 12

Computed particles trajectories around the airfoil at the midspan section with the color showing their velocities

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Fig. 13

Computed stream-wise profile of particle impact frequency, impact velocity, and impact angle along the airfoil surface at the midspan section: (a) impact frequency, (b) impact velocity, and (c) impact angle

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Fig. 14

Computed stream-wise profile of erosion rate along the airfoil surface at the midspan section

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