0
Research Papers

Start-Up Optimization of Combined Cycle Power Plants: A Field Test in a Commercial Power Plant

[+] Author and Article Information
Yasuhiro Yoshida

Research & Development Group,
Hitachi, Ltd.,
7-2-1 Omika-cho,
Hitachi, Ibaraki 319-1221, Japan
e-mail: yasuhiro.yoshida.xb@hitachi.com

Takuya Yoshida

Research & Development Group,
Hitachi, Ltd.,
7-2-1 Omika-cho,
Hitachi, Ibaraki 319-1221, Japan
e-mail: takuya.yoshida.ru@hitachi.com

Yuki Enomoto

Steam Turbine Products Headquarters,
Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems, Ltd.,
3-3-1 Minatomirai,
Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220-8401, Japan
e-mail: yuki_enomoto@mhps.com

Nobuhiro Osaki

Steam Turbine Products Headquarters,
Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems, Ltd.,
3-3-1 Minatomirai,
Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220-8401, Japan
e-mail: nobuhiro_osaki@mhps.com

Yoshito Nagahama

Steam Turbine Products Headquarters,
Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems, Ltd.,
3-3-1 Minatomirai,
Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220-8401, Japan
e-mail: yoshito_nagahama@mhps.com

Yoshifumi Tsuge

Department of Chemical Engineering,
Kyushu University,
744 Motooka,
Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
e-mail: tsuge@chem-eng.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Manuscript received March 27, 2018; final manuscript received August 31, 2018; published online October 4, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Klaus Dobbeling.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(3), 031002 (Oct 04, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1143; doi: 10.1115/1.4041521 History: Received March 27, 2018; Revised August 31, 2018

Requirements for the start-up operations of gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) power plants have become more diverse and now include such items as reduced start-up time, life consumption, and fuel gas consumption. In this paper, an optimization method is developed to solve these multi-objective problems. The method obtains optimized start-up curves by iterating the search for the optimal combination of the start-up parameter values and the evaluation of multiple objective functions. The start-up curves generated by this method were found to converge near the Pareto-front representing the best trade-off between the fuel gas consumption of the gas turbine (GT) and thermal stress in the steam turbine (ST) rotor which are defined as the objective functions. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed method, field tests were performed in a commercial power plant. As a result, the fuel gas consumption of HOT start-up was reduced by 22.8% compared with the past operation data. From this result, the developed method was shown to be capable of optimizing the start-up process for GTCC power plants.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Knopf, B. , Nahmmacher, P. , and Schmid, E. , 2015, “ The European Renewable Energy Target for 2030—An Impact Assessment of the Electricity Sector,” Energy Policy, 85, pp. 50–60. [CrossRef]
Greis, J. , Gobrecht, E. , and Wendt, S. , 2012, “ Flexible and Economical Operation of Power Plants—25 Years of Expertise,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-68716.
Balling, L. , and Pickard, A. , 2012, “ Security of Supply: A Remaining Challenge in the Energy Transition to a Greener Power Generation,” Power-Gen Europe, Cologne, Germany, June 12–14.
Checcacci, D. , Cosi, L. , and Sah, S. , 2011, “ Rotor Life Prediction and Improvement for Steam Turbines Under Cyclic Operation,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45792.
Saito, K. , Sakuma, A. , and Fukuda, M. , 2005, “ Recent Life Assessment Technology for Existing Steam Turbines,” ASME Paper No. PWR2005-50345.
Henkel, N. , Schmid, E. , and Gobrecht, E. , 2008, “ Operational Flexibility Enhancements of Combined Cycle Power Plants,” Power-Gen Asia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Oct. 21–23. https://www.energy.siemens.com/us/pool/hq/energy-topics/pdfs/en/combined-cycle-power-plants/OperationalFlexibilityEnhancementsofCombinedCyclePowerPlants.pdf
Bohtz, C. , Stevens, M. , Sackmann, H. , and Ruedt, A. , 2013, “ District Heating With the Flexibility of the KA26 Combined Cycle Power Plant,” Russia Power, Moscow, Russia, Mar. 5–6.
McManus, M. , and Baumgartner, R. , 2003, “ An Integrated Combined-Cycle Plant Design That Provides Fast Start Capability at Base-Load,” Power-Gen, Las Vegas, NV, Dec. 4–6. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/de4f/ad3688ab595c219c419196416636da2c5975.pdf
Brückner, J. , and Schlund, G. , 2011, “ Pego Experience Confirms BENSON as Proven HRSG Technology,” Mod. Power Syst., 31(6), pp. 21–24. https://www.energy.siemens.com/ru/pool/hq/power-generation/power-plants/steam-power-plant-solutions/benson%20boiler/Pego_experience_confirms_BENSON_as_proven_HRSG_technology.pdf
Alyah, M. , Ashman, J. , Arisoy, A. , Astley, E. , Herbst, E. , Jennings, P. , Gusev, A. , Emelyanov, R. , and Radevsky, R. , 2015, “ Combined Cycle Power Plants,” IMIA Annual Conference, Merida, Mexico, Sept. 26–30.
Casella, F. , and Pretolani, F. , 2006, “ Fast Start-Up of a Combined-Cycle Power Plant: A Simulation Study With Modelica,” Fifth International Modelica Conference, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 4–5, pp. 3–10. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237826713_Fast_Start-up_of_a_Combined-Cycle_Power_Plant_A_Simulation_Study_with_Modelica_Fast_Start-up_of_a_Combined-Cycle_Power_Plant_a_Simulation_Study_with_Modelica
Balling, L. , 2011, “ Fast Cycling and Rapid Start-Up: New Generation of Plants Achieves Impressive Results,” Mod. Power Syst., 31(1), pp. 35–41. http://m.energy.siemens.com/nl/pool/hq/power-generation/power-plants/gas-fired-power-plants/combined-cycle-powerplants/Fast_cycling_and_rapid_start-up_US.pdf
Ruchti, C. , Olia, H. , Franitza, K. , and Ehrsam, A. , 2011, “ Combined Cycle Power Plants as Ideal Solution to Balance Grid Fluctuations,” Kraftwerkstechnisches Kolloquium, TU Dresden, Germany, Sept. 18–19.
Vogt, J. , Schaaf, T. , Mohr, W. , and Helbig, K. , 2013, “ Flexibility Improvement of the Steam Turbine of Conventional or CCPP,” Power-Gen Europe, Cologne, Germany, June 4–6.
Gülen, S. C. , and Jones, C. M. , 2011, “ GE's Next Generation CCGT Plants: Operational Flexibility is the Key,” Mod. Power Syst., 35(6), pp.16–18. https://www.bechtel.com/getattachment/about-us/insights/ge-next-generation-ccgt-plants/GE%E2%80%99s-next-generation-CCGT-plants-operational-flexibility-is-the-key.pdf
Matsumoto, S. , Yakushi, K. , and Kitaguchi, N. , 2010, “ Optimal Turbine Startup Methodology Based on Thermal Stress Prediction,” Therm. Nucl. Power, 61(9), pp. 798–803.
Yoshida, Y. , Yamanaka, K. , Yamashita, A. , Iyanaga, N. , and Yoshida, T. , 2016, “ Coordinated Control of Gas and Steam Turbines for Efficient Fast Start-Up of Combined Cycle Power Plants,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 139(2), p. 022601. [CrossRef]
Bertini, I. , Felice, D. M. , Moretti, M. , and Pizzuti, S. , 2010, “ Start-Up Optimisation of a Combined Cycle Power Plant With Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms,” EvoApplications 2010: Applications of Evolutionary Computation, Istanbul, Turkey, Apr. 7–9, pp. 151–160.
Ahmadi, P. , and Dincer, I. , 2011, “ Thermodynamic and Exergoenvironmental Analyses, and Multi-Objective Optimization of a Gas Turbine Power Plant,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 31(14–15), pp. 2529–2540. [CrossRef]
Hajabdollahi, F. , Hajabdollahi, Z. , and Hajabdollahi, H. , 2012, “ Soft Computing Based Multi-Objective Optimization of Steam Cycle Power Plant Using NSGA-II and ANN,” Appl. Soft Comput., 12(11), pp. 3648–3655. [CrossRef]
Inui, T. , Nishijima, T. , Kusaka, I. , Kashiwahara, K. , and Fukushima, K. , 1981, “ Combined Cycle Power Plant,” Hitachi Rev., 63(7), pp. 443–448.
Deb, K. , Agrawal, S. , Pratap, A. , and Meysrivan, T. , 2000, “ A Fast Elitist Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm for Multi-Objective Optimization: NSGA-II,” Parallel Problem Solving From Nature VI Conference, Paris, France, Sept. 18–20, pp. 849–858.
Deb, K. , Agrawal, S. , Pratap, A. , and Meysrivan, T. , 2002, “ A: Fast and Elitist Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm: NSGA-II,” IEEE Trans Evol. Comput., 6(2), pp. 182–197. [CrossRef]
Deb, K. , and Gulati, S. , 2001, “ Design of Truss-Structures for Minimum Weight Using Genetic Algorithms,” Finite Elem. Anal. Des., 37(5), pp. 447–465. [CrossRef]
Deb, K. , 2014, “ Analysing Mutation Schemes for Real-Parameter Genetic Algorithms,” Int. J. Artif. Intell. Soft Comput., 4(1), pp. 1–28. [CrossRef]
Langer, B. F. , 1962, “ Design of Pressure Vessels for Low-Cycle Fatigue,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 84(3), pp. 389–399. [CrossRef]
Sonsino, C. M. , 2007, “ Course of SN-Curves especially in the High-Cycle Fatigue Regime With Regard to Component Design and Safety,” Int. J. Fatigue, 29(12), pp. 2246–2258. [CrossRef]
Gülen, S. C. , and Kim, K. , 2014, “ Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Dynamic Simulation: A Physics Based Simple Approach,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(1), p. 011601. [CrossRef]
Yoshida, Y. , Yamanaka, K. , Yamashita, A. , Iyanaga, N. , and Yoshida, T. , 2017, “ Optimal Start-Up Control of Combined Cycle Power Plants Using the Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm,” Trans. JSME, 83(847), p. 16-00433.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of typical start-up curves for a single-shaft GTCC power plant. The generator output represents the total output of the GT and ST. Though there are multiple CVs in the GTCC plant for the several steam systems of different pressures, only one CV position is shown to simplify the figure.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Start-up curve generation based on power producers' requests. The search for start-up parameter values by the optimization program and the calculation of the dynamic responses by the dynamic simulator are iterated.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Flow chart of the functions for searching start-up parameter values by using the NSGA-II. In this paper, the individuals represent the sets of the start-up parameter values and the objective functions represent the formulated power producers' requests.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The functional relation of GT load and steady-state steam temperature at the HRSG outlet

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of the past operation data and simulation results of measured steam temperature, steam flow rate, steam pressure, and ST rotor thermal stress. The vertical axis was normalized by each rated or limit value and the horizontal axis was normalized by the time from the start of HP-CV and IP-CV opening to the attainment of start-up completion conditions.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Schematic of the target plant for the optimization of start-up curves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Parameters to be optimized by the optimization program. The parameters are two points of the generator output (X1, X2), the holding time of the generator output (X3), two change rates of the generator output (X4, X5), and four change rates of the HP-CV position (X6-X9).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Start-up curves generated by the developed method. The vertical axis was normalized by the limit values of thermal stress in each start-up mode and the horizontal axis was normalized by the past operation data of the fuel gas consumption in each start-up mode: (a) HOT start-up, (b) WARM-2 start-up, (c) WARM-2 start-up, and (d) COLD start-up.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The examples of the generated start-up curves and thermal stress responses. The start-up curves were chosen from the Pareto-fronts in Fig. 8. The thermal stress responses were calculated based on these start-up curves by using the dynamic simulator. The vertical axis was normalized by each rated or limit value and the horizontal axis was normalized by the time from the GT ignition to attainment of the start-up completion conditions in the past operation data of HOT start-up: (a) HOT start-up and (b) COLD start-up.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Field test results obtained by employing the generated start-up curves in HOT start-up (curve h1 of Fig. 9(a)). The optimization target was from the start of HP-CV and IP-CV opening to the attainment of the start-up completion conditions (the minimum load and the fully open position of the HP-CV and IP-CV). The start-up curve after the attainment of the start-up completion conditions was not the optimization target because the generator output was controlled based on the electric power demand. The vertical axis was normalized by each rated or limited value and the horizontal axis was normalized by the time from the GT ignition to attainment of start-up completion conditions in the past operation data: (a) past start-up operation and (b) field test results.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Field test results of fuel gas consumption of the GT. The fuel gas consumption from synchronization of the generator to the start of HP-CV opening (dark gray) was assumed to be the same for the field test result and the past operation data for comparative evaluation because this consumption depends on the plant start-up condition according to the cool-down time from the last shutdown to the next restart.

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In