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Research Papers

A Comprehensive Model for the Auto-Ignition Prediction in Spark Ignition Engines Fueled With Mixtures of Gasoline and Methane-Based Fuel

[+] Author and Article Information
Emiliano Pipitone

Department of Industrial
and Digital Innovation (DIID),
University of Palermo,
Palermo 90128, Italy
e-mail: emiliano.pipitone@unipa.it

Stefano Beccari

Department of Industrial
and Digital Innovation (DIID),
University of Palermo,
Palermo 90128, Italy
e-mail: stefano.beccari@unipa.it

Manuscript received June 7, 2018; final manuscript received October 1, 2018; published online November 16, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Nadir Yilmaz.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(4), 041009 (Nov 16, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1241; doi: 10.1115/1.4041675 History: Received June 07, 2018; Revised October 01, 2018

The introduction of natural gas (NG) in the road transport market is proceeding through bifuel vehicles, which, endowed of a double-injection system, can run either with gasoline or with NG. A third possibility is the simultaneous combustion of NG and gasoline, called double-fuel (DF) combustion: the addition of methane to gasoline allows to run the engine with stoichiometric air even at full load, without knocking phenomena, increasing engine efficiency of about 26% and cutting pollutant emissions by 90%. The introduction of DF combustion into series production vehicles requires, however, proper engine calibration (i.e., determination of DF injection and spark timing maps), a process which is drastically shortened by the use of computer simulations (with a 0D two zone approach for in-cylinder processes). An original knock onset prediction model is here proposed to be employed in zero-dimensional simulations for knock-safe performances optimization of engines fueled by gasoline-NG mixtures or gasoline-methane mixtures. The model takes into account the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior of fuels and has been calibrated using a considerable amount of knocking in-cylinder pressure cycles acquired on a Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine widely varying compression ratio (CR), inlet temperature, spark advance (SA), and fuel mixture composition, thus giving the model a general validity for the simulation of naturally aspirated or supercharged engines. As a result, the auto-ignition onset is predicted with maximum and mean error of 4.5 and 1.4 crank angle degrees (CAD), respectively, which is a negligible quantity from an engine control standpoint.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Auto-ignition delay obtained by rapid compression machine test [21] (gasoline surrogate, 20 bar, three different equivalence ratios ϕ)

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Fig. 2

Graphical representation of the model proposed versus experimental data [21]

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Fig. 3

Raw and filtered in-cylinder pressure signal with ϑK,exp evaluation (methane mass fraction 60%, SA = 35 CAD BTDC, TIN = 140 °C)

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Fig. 4

Gasoline–natural gas test: comparison between estimated and experimental auto-ignition onset position (operative conditions reported in Table 3, xGAS from 20% to 80%)

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Fig. 5

Gasoline–methane test: comparison between estimated and experimental auto-ignition onset position (operative conditions reported in Table 4, xGAS from 20% to 80%)

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Fig. 6

Model coefficient A as function of the gaseous fuel mass fraction xGAS

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Fig. 7

Fuel mixture MON as function of xgas

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Fig. 8

Model coefficient A as function of the mixtures MON

Tables

Errata

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