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Research Papers

Numerical and Experimental Investigation on an Effusion-Cooled Lean Burn Aeronautical Combustor: Aerothermal Field and Emissions

[+] Author and Article Information
L. Mazzei

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
via S. Marta 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: lorenzo.mazzei@htc.unifi.it

S. Puggelli

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
via S. Marta 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: stefano.puggelli@htc.unifi.it

D. Bertini

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
via S. Marta 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: davide.bertini@htc.unifi.it

A. Andreini

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
via S. Marta 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: antonio.andreini@htc.unifi.it

B. Facchini

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
via S. Marta 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: bruno.facchini@htc.unifi.it

I. Vitale

GE Avio S.r.l.,
via Primo Maggio 56,
Rivalta di Torino (TO) 10040, Italy
e-mail: ignazio.vitale@avioaero.it

A. Santoriello

GE Avio S.r.l.,
via Primo Maggio 56,
Rivalta di Torino (TO) 10040, Italy
e-mail: antonio.santoriello@avioaero.it

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 29, 2018; final manuscript received October 1, 2018; published online November 2, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(4), 041006 (Nov 02, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1587; doi: 10.1115/1.4041676 History: Received August 29, 2018; Revised October 01, 2018

Lean burn combustion is increasing its popularity in the aeronautical framework due to its potential in reducing drastically pollutant emissions (NOx and soot in particular). Its implementation, however, involves significant issues related to the increased amount of air dedicated to the combustion process, demanding the redesign of injection and cooling systems. Also, the conditions at the combustor exit are a concern, as high turbulence, residual swirl, and the impossibility to adjust the temperature profile with dilution holes determine a harsher environment for nozzle guide vanes. This work describes the final stages of the design of an aeronautical effusion-cooled lean burn combustor. Full annular tests were carried out to measure temperature profiles and emissions (CO and NOx) at the combustor exit. Different operating conditions of the ICAO cycle were tested, considering Idle, Cruise, Approach, and Take-off. Scale-adaptive simulations with the flamelet generated manifold (FGM) combustion model were performed to extend the validation of the employed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology and to reproduce the experimental data in terms of radial temperature distribution factor (RTDF)/overall temperature distribution factor (OTDF) profiles as well as emission indexes (EIs). The satisfactory agreement paved the way to an exploitation of the methodology to provide a deeper understanding of the flow physics within the combustion chamber, highlighting the impact of the different operating conditions on flame, spray evolution, and pollutant formation.

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Figures

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Fig. 4

Sketch of the traverse system (left) and example of resulting temperature pattern for the approach condition (right)

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Fig. 3

Sketch of the PERM injection system equipped on the LEMCOTEC combustor

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Fig. 2

GE Avio's NEWAC combustor prototype

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Fig. 5

Computational domain used for DLR-GSSC burner

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Fig. 1

DLR generic single sector combustor with details of the swirler geometry (adapted from Refs. [12] and [13])

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Fig. 10

Computational domain and grid

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Fig. 6

Time-averaged and instantaneous temperature and velocity contour plots obtained with SAS-FGM for test point C

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Fig. 12

Contours of instantaneous (left): (a) idle, (b) approach, (c) cruise, and (d) take-off and mean (right): (a) idle, (b) approach, (c) cruise, and (d) take-off temperature at different conditions

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Fig. 7

Instantaneous temperature contour plots obtained with SAS-FGM (left) and experimental map (right) adapted from Ref.[13]

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Fig. 8

Time-averaged heat release contour plot obtained with SAS-FGM (left) against the experimental map (right) adapted from Ref. [13]

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Fig. 9

Time-averaged temperature contour plot obtained with SAS-FGM (left) against the experimental map (right) adapted from Ref. [13]

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Fig. 15

Comparison of CO and NO EI at different conditions

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Fig. 11

Contours of the mean velocity magnitude at different conditions: (a) idle, (b) approach, (c) cruise, and (d) take-off

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Fig. 13

Radial temperature distribution factor and OTDF profiles at different operating conditions

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Fig. 14

Mean temperature distributions at Plane 40 section overlapped by contour lines of temperature RMS normalized to the local mean value (black-to-white scale representing value from 0% to 30%): (a) idle, (b) approach, (c) cruise, and (d) take-off

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Fig. 16

Contours plots of instantaneous flame index obtained in all the analyzed test conditions. Iso-lines show the presence of the spray (green) and the concentration of CO and NO (blue and red, respectively). (a) idle, (b) approach, (c) cruise, and (d) take-off (see color figure online).

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