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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Backward-Inclined Diffusion Jet Flames in Crossflow at Low Jet-to-Crossflow Momentum Flux Ratios

[+] Author and Article Information
Dickson Bwana Mosiria

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Taiwan University of Science and
Technology,
No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road,
Taipei 10672, Taiwan, China
e-mail: dickson.bwana@yahoo.com

Rong Fung Huang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Taiwan University of Science and
Technology,
No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road,
Taipei 10672, Taiwan, China
e-mail: rfhuang@mail.ntust.edu.tw

Ching Min Hsu

Department of Mechanical Design Engineering,
National Formosa University,
Huwei Township, Yunlin County,
Taiwan 63246,
e-mail: cmhsu@nfu.edu.tw

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received March 11, 2018; final manuscript received October 25, 2018; published online November 19, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Eric Petersen.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(5), 051501 (Nov 19, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1122; doi: 10.1115/1.4041870 History: Received March 11, 2018; Revised October 25, 2018

In the design of gas turbine combustors, efforts are engineered toward reducing the combustion pollutant emission levels. The pollutant emissions can be reduced by premixing the fuel and the air prior to ignition. However, the main challenges encountered with premixing are flame flashback and blowout, thus, the preference of diffusion flames. In this study, flame behavior, flow patterns, and thermochemical fields of backward-inclined diffusion jet flames in crossflow at low jet-to-crossflow momentum flux ratio of smaller than 0.04 were studied in a wind tunnel. The backward-inclination angle was varied within 0–50 deg. The flames presented three characteristic modes: crossflow dominated flame (low backward inclination angle) denoted by a large down-washed recirculation flame, transitional flame (mediate backward inclination angle) identified by a recirculation flame and a tail flame, and jet dominated flame (high backward inclination angle) characterized by a blue flame base, a yellow tail flame, and the absence of a recirculation flame. Short flames are detected in the regime of the crossflow dominated flames—an indication of improved fuel–air mixing. The findings suggest that for low exhaust emissions which are vigorously pursued in the aviation and thermal power plant industries, especially during low-load operations, the jet dominated flames are the preferable flames as they generate low unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide emissions compared to the other flames.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Topics: Flames , Combustion , Momentum
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Experimental setup

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Fig. 2

Side view flame images of crossflow dominated flames. Long exposure (left column) at exposure time = 2 s and short exposure (right column) at exposure time = 0.33 ms. R = 0.015: (a) θ = 0 deg, (b) θ = 10 deg, (c) θ = 15 deg, (d) θ = 0 deg, (e) θ = 10 deg, and (f) θ = 15 deg.

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Fig. 3

Side view flame images of transitional flames. Long exposure (left column) at exposure time = 2 s and short exposure (right column) at exposure time = 0.33 ms. R = 0.015: (a) θ = 25 deg, (b) θ = 30 deg, (c) θ = 35 deg, (d) θ = 25 deg, (e) θ = 30 deg, and (f) θ = 35 deg.

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Fig. 4

Side view images at jet dominated flames. Long exposure (left column) at exposure time = 2 s and short exposure (right column) at exposure time = 0.33 ms. R = 0.015: (a) θ = 40 deg, (b) θ = 45 deg, (c) θ = 50 deg, (d) θ = 40 deg, (e) θ = 45 deg, and (f) θ = 50 deg.

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Fig. 5

Side view flame images at R = 0.228, Rej = 2377, and Rew = 2300. Long exposure at exposure time = 2 s: (a) θ = 5 deg, (b) θ = 30 deg, and (c) θ = 50 deg.

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Fig. 6

Regimes of characteristic flame modes. Rew = 2300.

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Fig. 7

Instantaneous flow patterns and flame images in the median plane (y/d = 0). Crossflow dominated flames at θ = 0 deg and10 deg, transitional flames at θ = 35 deg, and jet dominated flames at θ = 45 deg. Frame rate = 2000 fps, exposure time = 0.2 ms. R = 0.015: (a) θ = 0 deg, (b) θ = 10 deg, (c) θ = 35 deg, and (d) θ = 45 deg.

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Fig. 8

Variation of total flame length. R = 0.015.

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Fig. 9

Top view flame images of crossflow dominated flames. Long exposure (left column) at exposure time = 2 s and short exposure (right column) at exposure time = 0.33 ms. R = 0.015: (a) θ = 0 deg, (b) θ = 10 deg, (c) θ = 15 deg, (d) θ = 0 deg, (e) θ = 10 deg, and (f) θ = 15 deg.

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Fig. 10

Top view flame images of transitional flames. Long exposure (left column) at exposure time = 2 s and short exposure (right column) at exposure time = 0.33 ms. R = 0.015: (a) θ = 25 deg, (b) θ = 30 deg, (c) θ = 35 deg, (d) θ = 25 deg, (e) θ = 30 deg, and (f) θ = 35 deg.

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Fig. 11

Top view flame images of jet dominated flames. Long exposure (left column) at exposure time = 2 s and short exposure (right column) at exposure time = 0.33 ms. R = 0.015: (a) θ = 40 deg, (b) θ = 45 deg, (c) θ = 50 deg, (d) θ = 40 deg, (e) θ = 45 deg, and (f) θ = 50 deg.

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Fig. 12

Temperature distributions in symmetry plane (y/d = 0). Crossflow dominated flames at θ = 0 deg and10 deg, transitional flames at θ = 35 deg, and jet dominated flames at θ = 45 deg. R = 0.015.

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Fig. 13

Temperature distributions in transverse directions at x/d = 5 with R = 0.015. Crossflow dominated flames at θ = 10 deg, transitional flames at θ = 35 deg, and jet dominated flames at θ = 45 deg: (a) z/d = 0, (b) z/d = −2, (c) z/d = −4, (d) z/d = −12, (e) z/d = 0, (f) z/d = −1, (g) z/d = −2, (h) z/d = −3, (i) z/d = 1, (j) z/d = 0.5, (k) z/d = 0, and (l) z/d = −1.

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Fig. 14

Temperature distributions in transverse directions at x/d = 20 with R = 0.015. Transitional flame at θ = 35 deg and jet dominated flame at θ = 45 deg: (a) z/d = 1, (b) z/d = 0, (c) z/d = −1, (d) z/d = −2, (e) z/d = 2, (f) z/d = 1, (g) z/d = 0, and (h) z/d = −0.5.

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Fig. 15

Maximum temperature distribution s in symmetry plane (y/d = 0) at R = 0.015

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Fig. 16

Combustion products concentration distributions in symmetry plane (y/d = 0) at x/d = 5 with R = 0.015. Crossflow dominated flames at θ = 10 deg, transitional flames at θ = 35 deg, and jet dominated flames at θ = 45 deg.

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Fig. 17

Combustion products concentration distributions in symmetry plane (y/d = 0) at x/d = 10 with R = 0.015. Crossflow dominated flames at θ = 10 deg, transitional flames at θ = 35 deg, and jet dominated flames at θ = 45 deg.

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Fig. 18

Combustion products concentration distributions in symmetry plane (y/d = 0) at x/d = 20 with R = 0.015. Transitional flame at θ = 35 deg, and jet dominated flame at θ = 45 deg.

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