Research Papers

Modeling and Control of Combustion Phasing in Dual-Fuel Compression Ignition Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Wenbo Sui, Jorge Pulpeiro González, Carrie M. Hall

Illinois Institute of Technology,
10 W. 32nd St.,
Chicago, IL 60616

Manuscript received April 23, 2018; final manuscript received October 24, 2018; published online November 28, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Alessandro Ferrari.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(5), 051005 (Nov 28, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1181; doi: 10.1115/1.4041871 History: Received April 23, 2018; Revised October 24, 2018

Dual-fuel engines can achieve high efficiencies and low emissions but also can encounter high cylinder-to-cylinder variations on multicylinder engines. In order to avoid these variations, they require a more complex method for combustion phasing control such as model-based control. Since the combustion process in these engines is complex, typical models of the system are complex as well and there is a need for simpler, computationally efficient, control-oriented models of the dual-fuel combustion process. In this paper, a mean-value combustion phasing model is designed and calibrated, and two control strategies are proposed. Combustion phasing is predicted using a knock integral model (KIM), burn duration (BD) model, and a Wiebe function, and this model is used in both an adaptive closed loop controller and an open loop controller. These two control methodologies are tested and compared in simulations. Both control strategies are able to reach steady-state in five cycles after a transient and have steady-state errors in CA50 that are less than ±0.1 CA deg (CAD) with the adaptive control strategy and less than ±1.5 CAD with the model-based feedforward control method.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Weaver, C. , and Turner, S. , 1994, “ Dual Fuel Natural Gas/Diesel Engines: Technology, Performance, and Emissions,” SAE Paper No. 940548.
Ickes, A. , Hanson, R. , and Wallner, T. , 2015, “ Impact of Effective Compression Ratio on Gasoline-Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine Using Variable Valve Actuation,” SAE Paper No. 2015-01-1796.
Hanson, R. , Kokjohn, S. , Splitter, D. , and Reitz, R. , 2010, “ An Experimental Investigation of Fuel Reactivity Controlled PCCI Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 3(1), pp. 700–716. [CrossRef]
Dempsey, A. , Curran, S. , Storey, J. , Eibl, M. , Pihl, J. , Prikhodko, V. , Wagner, R. , and Parks, J. , 2014, “ Particulate Matter Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) on a Light Duty Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2014-01-1596.
Curran, S. , Hanson, R. , and Wagner, R. , 2012, “ Effect of E85 on RCCI Performance and Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0376.
Dempsey, A. , Curran, S. , and Reitz, R. , 2015, “ Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline With a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 8(2), pp. 859–877. [CrossRef]
Belaid-Saleh, H. , Jay, S. , Kashdan, J. , Ternel, C. , and Mounaïm-Rousselle, C. , 2013, “ Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Combustion Regimes in a Dual Fuel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2013-24-0015.
Zhang, Y. , Sagalovich, I. , De Ojeda, W. , Ickes, A. , Wallner, T. , and Wickman, D. D. , 2013, “ Development of Dual-Fuel Low Temperature Combustion Strategy in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Conventional and Alternative Fuels,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 6(3), pp. 1481–1489. [CrossRef]
Heywood, J. B. , 2011, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, Indian ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 501–502.
Stone, R. , 1999, Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines, 3rd ed., Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, p. 424.
Suzuki, Y. , Kusaka, J. , Ogawa, M. , Ogai, H. , Nakayama, S. , and Fukuma, T. , 2011, “ Modeling of Diesel Engine Components for Model-Based Control (Second Report): Prediction of Combustion With High Speed Calculation Diesel Combustion Model,” SAE Paper No. 2011-01-2044.
Hernandez, J. J. , Sanz-Argent, J. , Carot, J. M. , and Jabaloyes, J. M. , 2010, “ Ignition Delay Time Correlations for a Diesel Fuel With Application to Engine Combustion Modelling,” Int. J. Engine Res., 11(3), pp. 199–206. [CrossRef]
Bengtsson, J. , Gafvert, M. , and Strandh, P. , 2004, “ Modeling of HCCI Engine Combustion for Control Analysis,” 43rd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Atlantis, Paradise Island, Bahamas, Dec. 14–17, pp. 1682–1687.
Livengood, J. C. , and Wu, P. C. , 1955, “ Correlation of Autoignition Phenomena in Internal Combustion Engines and Rapid Compression Machines,” Symp. (Int.) Combust., 5(1), pp. 347–356. [CrossRef]
Hillion, M. , Buhlbuck, H. , Chauvin, J. , and Petit, N. , 2009, “ Combustion Control of Diesel Engines Using Injection Timing,” SAE Paper No. 2009-01-0367.
Lafossas, F.-A. , Marbaix, M. , and Menegazzi, P. , 2007, “ Development and Application of a 0D D.I. Diesel Combustion Model for Emissions Prediction,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-1841.
Arsie, I. , Di Genova, F. , Mogavero, A. , Pianese, C. , Rizzo, G. , Caraceni, A. , Cioffi, P. , and Flauti, G. , 2006, “ Multi-Zone Predictive Modeling of Common Rail Multi-Injection Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2006-01-1384.
Shahbakhti, M. , 2009, “ Modeling and Experimental Study of an HCCI Engine for Combustion Timing Control,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. https://era.library.ualberta.ca/items/cb397d94-31c8-4dd1-8c39-5268d2083fd0
Bettis, J. B. , 2010, “ Thermodynamic Based Modeling for Nonlinear Control of Combustion,” Master thesis, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO.
Xu, S. , and Filipi, Z. , 2015, “Combustion Modeling of Dual-Fuel Engines,” Graduate Research and Discovery Symposium (GRADS), Clemson University, Clemson, SC, Paper No. 134. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/grads_symposium/134
Bhave, A. , Montorsi, L. , and Mauss, F. , 2004, “ Modelling a Dual-Fuelled Multi-Cylinder HCCI Engine Using a PDF Based Engine Cycle Simulator,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-0561.
Aldawood, A. , Mosbach, S. , and Kraft, M. , 2012, “ HCCI Combustion Control Using Dual-Fuel, Cambridge Centre for Computational Chemical Engineering,” University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Nazemi, M. , 2015, “ Modeling and Analysis of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion,” Master's thesis, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI. https://digitalcommons.mtu.edu/etds/956/
Sadabadi, K. K. , 2015, “ Modelling and Control of Combustion Phasing of an RCCI Engine,” Master thesis, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI. https://digitalcommons.mtu.edu/etds/966/
Olsson, J.-O. , Tunestål, P. , and Johansson, B. , 2001, “ Closed-Loop Control of an HCCI Engine,” SAE Trans., J. Engines, 110(3), pp. 1076–1085.
Maurya, R. , and Agarwal, A. , 2013, “ Experimental Investigation of Close-Loop Control of HCCI Engine Using Dual Fuel Approach,” SAE Paper No. 2013-01-1675.
Strandh, P. , Bengtsson, J. , Johansson, R. , Tunestål, P. , and Johansson, B. , 2004, “ Cycle-to-Cycle Control of a Dual-Fuel HCCI Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-0941.
Ott, T. , Zurbriggen, F. , Onder, C. , and Guzzella, L. , 2013, “ Cylinder Individual Feedback Control of Combustion in a Dual-Fuel Engine,” IFAC Proc., 46(21), pp. 600–605. [CrossRef]
Arora, J. , and Shahbakhti, M. , 2017, “ Real-Time Closed-Loop Control of a Light-Duty RCCI Engine During Transient Operations,” SAE Paper No. 2017-01-0767.
Kondipatiy, N. N. T. , Aroray, J. K. , Bidarvatany, M. , and Shahbakhti, M. , 2017, “ Modeling, Design and Implementation of a Closed-Loop Combustion Controller for an RCCI Engine,” American Control Conference (ACC), Seattle, WA, May 24–26.
Hall, C. M. , Shaver, G. M. , Chauvin, J. , and Petit, N. , 2012, “ Combustion Phasing Model for Control of a Gasoline-Ethanol Fueled SI Engine With Variable Valve Timing,” American Control Conference (ACC), Montreal, QC, Canada, June 27–29.
Turns, S. R. , 2000, An Introduction to Combustion: Concepts and Applications, 2nd ed., McGraw Hill, New York, p. 157.
Joshi, U. , Zheng, Z. , Shrestha, A. , Henein, N. , and Sattler, E. , 2015, “ An Investigation on Sensitivity of Ignition Delay and Activation Energy in Diesel Combustion,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(9), p. 091506. [CrossRef]
Rausen, D. J. , Stefanopoulou, A. G. , Kang, J.-M. , Eng, J. A. , and Kuo, T.-W. , 2004, “ A Mean-Value Model for Control of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas. Control, 127(3), pp. 355–362. [CrossRef]
Kassa, M. , Hall, C. , Ickes, A. , and Wallner, T. , 2016, “ Cylinder-to-Cylinder Variations in Power Production in a Dual Fuel Internal Combustion Engine Leveraging Late Intake Valve Closings,” SAE Paper No. 2016-01-0776.
Hokayem, P. A. , and Gallestey, E. , 2017, “ Lecture Notes on Nonlinear Systems and Control,” ABB Switzerland, Ltd., Baden-Dättwil, Switzerland, accessed Sept. 24, 2017, http://people.ee.ethz.ch/~apnoco/Lectures2018/NLSC_lecture_notes_2018.pdf
Kocher, L. , Hall, C. , Stricker, K. , Fain, D. , Van Alstine, D. , and Shaver, G. M. , 2014, “ Robust Oxygen Fraction Estimation for Conventional and Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines With Variable Valve Actuation,” Control Eng. Pract., 29, pp. 187–200. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of dual-fuel engine system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Block diagram of combustion phasing in dual-fuel engines

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Model calibration procedure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparison of model predicted: (a) SOC and (b) CA50 with GT-ISE simulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Block diagram of CA50 adaptive feedback control system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Block diagram of CA50 model-based open-loop control system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Controller performance for all simulation cases: (a) reference CA50 change, (b) engine speed change, (c) natural gas equivalence ratio change, (d) EGR fraction change, (e) combined natural gas equivalence ratio and engine speed change, and (f) combined change in EGR fraction, engine speed, and natural gas equivalence ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Simulation result of error response in adaptive controller



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In