Research Papers

Modeling and Control of a Diesel Engine With Regenerative Hydraulic-Assisted Turbocharger

[+] Author and Article Information
Tao Zeng

Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: zengtao2@msu.edu

Guoming Zhu

Fellow ASME
Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: zhug@egr.msu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 26, 2017; final manuscript received October 29, 2018; published online November 28, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Stani Bohac.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(5), 051004 (Nov 28, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1532; doi: 10.1115/1.4041932 History: Received September 26, 2017; Revised October 29, 2018

Diesel engines are of great challenges due to stringent emission and fuel economy requirements. Compared with the conventional turbocharger system, regenerative assisted system provides additional degrees-of-freedom for turbocharger speed control. Hence, it significantly improves control capability for exhaust-gas-recirculation (EGR) and boost pressure. This paper focuses on modeling and control of a diesel engine air-path system equipped with an EGR subsystem and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) coupled with a regenerative hydraulic-assisted turbocharger (RHAT). The challenges lie in the inherent coupling among EGR, turbocharger performance, and high nonlinearity of the engine air-path system. A control-oriented nonlinear RHAT system model is developed; and a linear quadratic (LQ) control design approach is proposed in this paper to regulate the EGR mass flow rate and boost pressure simultaneously and the resulting closed-loop system performance can be tuned by properly selecting the LQ control weighting matrices. Multiple LQ controllers with integral action are designed based on the linearized system models over a gridded engine operational map and the final gain-scheduling controller for a given engine operational condition is obtained by interpreting the neighboring LQ controllers. The gain-scheduling LQ controllers for both traditional VGT-EGR and VGT-EGR-RHAT systems are compared with the in-house baseline controller, consisting of two single-input and single-output (SISO) controllers, against the nonlinear plant. The simulation results show that the designed multi-input and multi-output LQ gain-scheduling controller is able to manage the performance trade-offs between EGR mass flow and boost pressure tracking. With the additional assisted and regenerative power available on the turbocharger shaft for the RHAT system, engine transient boost pressure performance can be significantly improved without compromising the EGR tracking performance, compared with the baseline control.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Zeng, T. , Upadhyay, D. , Sun, H. , Curtis, E. , and Zhu, G. G. , 2017, “ Regenerative Hydraulic Assisted Turbocharger,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-64927.
Kolmanovsky, I. , Morall, P. , Van Nieuwstadt, M. , and Stefanopoulou, A. , 1999, “ Issues in Modelling and Control of Intake Flow in Variable Geometry Turbocharged Engines,” Research Notes in Mathematics, Chapman and Hall, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 436–445.
Sun, H. H. , Hanna, D. R. , Levin, M. , Curtis, E. W. , and Shaikh, F. Z. , 2014, “ Regenerative Assisted Turbocharger System,” Ford Global Technologies LLC, Dearborn, MI, U.S. Patent No. 8,915,082. https://patents.google.com/patent/US8915082
Dekker, H. J. , and Sturm, W. L. , 1996, “ Simulation and Control of a HD Diesel Engine Equipped With New EGR Technology,” SAE Paper No. 960871.
Jankovic, M. , and Kolmanovsky, I. , 1998, “ Robust Nonlinear Controller for Turbocharged Diesel Engines,” American Control Conference (ACC), Philadelphia, PA, June 24–26, pp. 1389–1394.
Upadhyay, D. , 2001, “ Modeling and Model Based Control Design of the VGT-EGR System for Intake Flow Regulation in Diesel Engines,” Ph.D. dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
Yang, Z. , Winward, E. , Zhao, D. , and Stobart, R. , 2016, “ Three-Input-Three-Output Air Path Control System of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine,” IFAC-PapersOnLine, 49(11), pp. 604–610. [CrossRef]
Kapasouris, P. , Athans, M. , and Spang, H. A. , 1985, “ Gain-Scheduled Multivariable Control for the GE-21 Turbofan Engine Using the LQG/LTR Methodology,” IEEE American Control Conference (ACC), Boston, MA, June 19–21, pp. 109–118.
Masar, I. , and Stöhr, E. , 2011, “ Gain-Scheduled LQR-Control for an Autonomous Airship,” 18th International Conference on Process Control, Tatranská Lomnica, Slovakia, June 14–17, pp. 197–204. https://www.uiam.sk/pc11/data/papers/097.pdf
Brasel, M. , 2014, “ A Gain-Scheduled Multivariable LQR Controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor,” 19th IEEE International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics (MMAR), Miedzyzdroje, Poland, Sept. 2–5, pp. 722–725.
Ostergaard, K. Z. , Brath, P. , and Stoustrup, J. , 2007, “ Gain-Scheduled Linear Quadratic Control of Wind Turbines Operating at High Wind Speed,” IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, Singapore, Oct. 1–3, pp. 276–281.
Chen, S. , and Yan, F. , 2015, “ Control of a Dual-Loop Exhaust Gas Recirculation System for a Turbocharged Diesel Engine,” Int. J. Automot. Technol., 16(5), pp. 733–738. [CrossRef]
Yan, F. , Haber, B. , and Wang, J. , 2009, “ Optimal Control of Complex Air-Path Systems for Advanced Diesel Engines,” ASME Paper No. DSCC2009-2537.
Naidu, D. S. , 2003, Optimal Control Systems, CRC Press, New York.
Zeng, T. , Upadhyay, D. , Sun, H. , and Zhu, G. G. , 2016, “ Physics-Based Turbine Power Models for a Variable Geometry Turbocharger,” American Control Conference (ACC), Boston, MA, July 6–8, pp. 5099–5104.
Zeng, T. , and Zhu, G. G. , 2017, “ Control-Oriented Turbine Power Model for a Variable Geometry Turbocharger,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 232(4), pp. 466–481. [CrossRef]
Zeng, T. , Upadhyay, D. , Sun, H. , and Zhu, G. G. , 2016, “ A Generalized Compressor Power Model for Turbocharged Internal Combustion Engine With Reducing Simplicity,” ASME Paper No. DSCC2016-9792. https://www.egr.msu.edu/zhug/Publications/Conference%20Articles/A%20generalized%20compressor%20power%20model%20for%20turbocharged%20internal%20combustion%20engines%20with%20reduced%20complexity.pdf
Zeng, T. , Upadhyay, D. , and Zhu, G. G. , 2017, “ A Regenerative Hydraulically Assisted Turbocharger System Model,” ASME Paper No. DSCC2017-5101.
Wahlström, J. , and Eriksson, L. , 2011, “ Modelling Diesel Engines With a Variable-Geometry Turbocharger and Exhaust Gas Recirculation by Optimization of Model Parameters for Capturing Non-Linear System Dynamics,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 225(7), pp. 960–986. [CrossRef]
Tomizuka, M. , and Dan, E. R. , 1979, “ On the Optimal Digital State Vector Feedback Controller With Integral and Preview Actions,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, 101(2), pp. 172–178. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Diesel engine equipped with RHAT system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Set-points for diesel engine air-path control

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Tracking reference generation in production controller

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

System model architecture and calculating loops

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Model validation results using the FTP 75 driving cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Proposed LQI regulator for engine EGR–VGT air-path system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

A step load test profile for engine operated at 800 rpm with 20 mg/cc

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Normalized VGT–EGR performance indexes as a function of Q

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Normalized VGT–EGR–RHAT performance indexes as a function of Q

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Gain-scheduling for local linear controllers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Gain-scheduling route for controller validation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Simulation results for VGT–EGR–RHAT control design: (a) boost pressure tracking error (hPa), (b) EGR MFR tracking error (kg/h), (c) VGT position, (d) EGR valve position, (e) pressure difference across EGR valve, and (f) hydraulic actuation power (kW)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparing different control designs



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In