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Research Papers

Numerical Study of Flame Shapes and Structures in a Two-Stage Two-Injection Aeronautical Burner With Variable Fuel Staging Using Eulerian Large Eddy Simulations

[+] Author and Article Information
Benoit Cheneau

Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS,
CentraleSupélec,
Université Paris-Saclay,
Gif-sur-Yvette, 91190, France;
Safran Aircraft Engines,
Rond Point René Ravaud—Réau,
Moissy-Cramayel, 77550, France
e-mail: benoit.cheneau@centralesupelec.fr

Aymeric Vié

Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS,
CentraleSupélec,
Université Paris-Saclay,
Gif-sur-Yvette, 91190, France
e-mail: aymeric.vie@centralesupelec.fr

Sébastien Ducruix

Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS,
CentraleSupélec,
Université Paris-Saclay,
Gif-sur-Yvette, 91190, France
e-mail: sebastien.ducruix@centralesupelec.fr

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 30, 2018; final manuscript received December 5, 2018; published online February 11, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Riccardo Da Soghe.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(7), 071014 (Feb 11, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1035; doi: 10.1115/1.4042205 History: Received January 30, 2018; Revised December 05, 2018

The aim of the present work is to evaluate the ability of large eddy simulation (LES) to predict flame shape and structures in a two-stage two-injection burner representative of new generation staged aeronautical engine: the Banc à Injection Multiple pour les Écoulements Réactifs (BIMER) burner. This combustor is a unique design because of an additional parameter, the staging factor, which controls the fuel mass flow rate splitting between the two swirl stages. Experiments conducted on the BIMER combustor at atmospheric pressure and for a constant power output have revealed that the shape of the flame changes with the staging factor; this shape also depends on the staging factor evolution history (SFEH). Targeting a single operating point and three staging situations, the objectives are to prove the ability of our simulation strategy to predict the proper shapes by reproducing these stabilization processes and to participate in their explanation, using numerical post-treatments. After validation through comparisons with experiments, our study focuses on these three configurations, two of them only differing by their SFEH. Remarkably, correct flame shapes are obtained numerically for the same operating point, fuel staging factors and SFEH. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons show very satisfactory agreement. In a second step, the three flame shapes are analyzed in depth. The key role played by the central and corner recirculation zones in the flames' existence and stabilization processes is emphasized. An original composition space analysis highlights the combustion regimes observed in these three cases, confirming the distinct stabilization scenarios proposed here for the three operating points.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Scheme (left) and side view (right) of the burner (from Ref. [7])

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Fig. 2

Scheme of the experimental combustor BIMER

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Fig. 3

Left: Mean images of OH* chemiluminescence obtained experimentally in Ref. [10]. Signals are normalized with the maximum value of case α20↗. Right: Mean images of heat release rate obtained numerically, time averaged and integrated over the line of sight. From top to bottom: α20↗, α60↗, α60↘: (a) experiments and (b) simulations.

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Fig. 4

Numerical domain of the BIMER experimental test bench (from Ref. [13])

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Fig. 5

Center plane of the mesh from the air inlet to the combustion chamber (a) and zoom of a clip view of the burner (b)

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Fig. 6

Comparison of normalized experimental Mie signal (symbols) and numerical mean droplet surface (blue lines) for α20↗ (M-flame, left), α60↗ (M-flame, center) and α60↘ (V-flame, right): (a) α20↗: M-flame, (b) α60↗: M-flame, and (c) α60↘: V-flame

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Fig. 7

Comparison of experimental (phase doppler anemometry, symbols) and numerical (blue lines) axial (left) and vertical (center) velocities, and SMD (right) for α20↗ (M-flame, left) and α60↗ (M-flame, center) and α60↘ (V-flame, right) at X =15 mm: (a)liquid axial velocity, (b) liquid vertical velocity, and (c) SMD

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Fig. 8

M-shaped flames: mean (top) and instantaneous (bottom) temperature (top half), and equivalence ratio (bottom half) fields at the central plane for operating conditions α20↗ (left) and α60↗ (right). Mean pseudo-streamlines of gas velocity (gray). Isolines of null axial velocity (black) and heat release rate at ω˙T=5×107 W·m−3 (white): (a) α20↗: mean field, (b) α60↗: mean field, (c) α20↗: instantaneous field, and (d) α60↗: instantaneous field.

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Fig. 9

M-shaped flame (α60↗): flow structure in transverse cuts (X = 5, 25 and 50 mm away from the combustion chamber entrance). Mean fields of temperature with superimposed mean heat release rate. Pseudo streamlines (white) and null axial velocity isolines (black). Top and bottom walls are water-cooled: (a) X = 5 mm, (b) X = 25 mm, and (c) X = 50 mm.

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Fig. 10

V-shaped flame (α60↘): mean (a) and instantaneous (b) temperature (top half), and O2 mass fraction (bottom half) fields at the central plane. Mean pseudo-streamlines of gas velocity (a/top, gray). Isolines of null axial velocity (black) and heat release rate at ω˙T=5×107 W·m−3 (white): (a) mean field and (b) instantaneous field.

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Fig. 11

V-shaped flame (α60↘): flow structure in transverse cuts (X = 5, 25 and 50 mm away from the combustion chamber entrance). Mean fields of temperature and superimposed mean heat release rate. Pseudo streamlines (white) and null axial velocity isolines (black). Top and bottom walls are water-cooled: (a) X = 5 mm, (b) X = 25 mm, and (c) X = 50 mm.

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Fig. 12

Takeno index in the flame region at the central plane: blue color stands for premixed regime, and red color stands for diffusion regime: (a) α60↘, (b) α60↗, and (c) α20↗

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Fig. 13

Colored two-dimensional cut planes at Y =0 (a). Temperature (b), oxygen mass fraction (c) and heat release rate (d) as functions of the mixture fraction for this plane. Left and center: M-shaped flames (α20↗ and α60↗). Right: V-shaped flame (α60↘).

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