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Research Papers

Physics of Deep Surge in an Automotive Turbocharger Centrifugal Compression System

[+] Author and Article Information
Rick Dehner

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering,
The Ohio State University,
201 West 19th Avenue,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: dehner.10@osu.edu

Ahmet Selamet

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering,
The Ohio State University,
201 West 19th Avenue,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: selamet.1@osu.edu

Manuscript received November 29, 2018; final manuscript received December 13, 2018; published online January 8, 2019. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(6), 061003 (Jan 08, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1723; doi: 10.1115/1.4042303 History: Received November 29, 2018; Revised December 13, 2018

Deep surge is a violent fluid instability that occurs within turbomachinery compression systems and limits the low-flow operating range. It is characterized by large amplitude pressure and flow rate fluctuations, where the cross-sectional averaged flow direction alternates between forward and reverse. The present study includes both measurements and predictions from a turbocharger centrifugal compressor installed on a gas stand. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the compression system was constructed to carry out unsteady surge predictions. The results included here capture the transition from mild to deep surge, as the flow rate at the outlet boundary (valve) is reduced. During this transition, the amplitude of pressure and flow rate fluctuations greatly increase until they reach a repeating cyclic structure characteristic of deep surge. During the deep surge portion of the prediction, pressure fluctuations are compared with measurements at the corresponding compressor inlet and outlet transducer locations, where the amplitudes and frequencies exhibit excellent agreement. The predicted flow field throughout the compression system is studied in detail during operation in deep surge, in order to characterize the unsteady and highly 3D structures present within the impeller, diffuser, and compressor inlet duct. Key observations include a core flow region near the axis of the inlet duct, where the flow remains in the forward direction throughout the deep surge cycle. The dominant noise generation occurs at the fundamental surge frequency, which is near the Helmholtz resonance of the compression system, along with harmonics at integer multiples of this fundamental frequency.

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References

Greitzer, E. M. , 1976, “ Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors—Part I: Theoretical Compression System Model,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 98(2), pp. 190–197. [CrossRef]
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Fink, D. A. , 1988, “ Surge Dynamics and Unsteady Flow Phenomena in Centrifugal Compressors,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, UK.
Fink, D. A. , Cumpsty, N. A. , and Greitzer, E. M. , 1992, “ Surge Dynamics in a Free-Spool Centrifugal Compressor System,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114(2), pp. 321–332. [CrossRef]
Yano, T. , and Nagata, B. , 1971, “ A Study on Surging Phenomena in Diesel Engine Air-Charging System,” Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., 14(70), pp. 364–376. [CrossRef]
Dehner, R. , Figurella, N. , Selamet, A. , Keller, P. , Becker, M. , Tallio, K. , Miazgowicz, K. , and Wade, R. , 2013, “ Instabilities at the Low-Flow Range of a Turbocharger Compressor,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 6(2), pp. 1356–1367. [CrossRef]
Karim, A. , Miazgowicz, K. , and Lizotte, B. , 2015, “ Automotive Turbocharger Compressor Onset of Surge Prediction Using Computational Fluid Dynamics,” SAE Paper No. 2015-01-1280.
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Guillou, E. , Gancedo, M. , Gutmark, E. , and Mohamed, A. , 2012, “ PIV Investigation of the Flow Induced by a Passive Surge Control Method in a Radial Compressor,” Exp. Fluids, 53(3), pp. 619–635. [CrossRef]
Dehner, R. , and Selamet, A. , 2018, “ Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Prediction of Turbocharger Centrifugal Compression System Instabilities,” ASME J. Turbomach. (under review).
Uhlenhake, G. , Selamet, A. , Fogarty, K. , Tallio, K. , and Keller, P. , 2011, “ Development of an Experimental Facility to Characterize Performance, Surge, and Acoustics in Turbochargers,” SAE Paper No. 2011-01-1644.
Dehner, R. , Selamet, A. , Keller, P. , and Becker, M. , 2010, “ Simulation of Mild Surge in a Turbocharger Compression System,” SAE J. Engines, 3(2), pp. 197–212. [CrossRef]
Dehner, R. , Selamet, A. , Keller, P. , and Becker, M. , 2011, “ Prediction of Surge in a Turbocharger Compression System vs. Measurements,” SAE J. Engines, 4(2), pp. 2181–2192. [CrossRef]
Dehner, R. , 2011, “ Simulation of Surge in Turbocharger Compression Systems,” M.S. thesis, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
Figurella, N. , Dehner, R. , Selamet, A. , Tallio, K. , Miazgowicz, K. , and Wade, R. , 2014, “ Noise at the Mid to High Flow Range of a Turbocharger Compressor,” Noise Control Engr. J., 62(5), pp. 306–312. [CrossRef]
Dehner, R. , 2016, “ An Experimental and Computational Study of Surge in Turbocharger Compression Systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311847329_An_Experimental_and_Computational_Study_of_Surge_in_Turbocharger_Compression_Systems
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Dehner, R. , Selamet, A. , Keller, P. , and Becker, M. , 2016, “ Simulation of Deep Surge in a Turbocharger Compression System,” ASME J. Turbomach., 138(11), p. 111002. [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 2

Full computational domain (turbocharger stand compression system) for 3D CFD predictions

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Fig. 1

Representative centrifugal compressor performance at constant rotational speed

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Fig. 10

Measured and predicted SPL at the compressor inlet duct pressure transducer location

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Fig. 11

Measured and predicted SPL at the compressor outlet duct pressure transducer location

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Fig. 3

Mesh of the of the rotating region for 3D CFD model, including (a) shroud surface (wall) and interface meshes, and (b) inner surface (wall) mesh, along with volume mesh on planes passing through the axis of rotation and main blade leading edges

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Fig. 4

Predicted mass flow rate over the full transient simulation

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Fig. 5

Predicted mass flow rate during deep surge

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Fig. 6

Predicted and measured absolute pressure at the compressor inlet duct transducer location during deep surge

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Fig. 7

Predicted and measured absolute pressure at the compressor outlet duct (CO) and plenum transducer locations during deep surge

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Fig. 8

Predicted pressure difference across the length of the compressor outlet duct

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Fig. 9

Time-resolved compressor operating points from the CFD prediction

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Fig. 12

Predicted axial velocity contours on a plane passing through the axis of rotation, at times: (a) 266.5 ms, (b) 285.7 ms, (c) 296.8 ms, and (d) 303.8 ms

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Fig. 13

Predicted tangential velocity contours on a plane passing through the axis of rotation, at times: (a) 266.5 ms, (b) 285.7 ms, (c) 296.8 ms, and (d) 303.8 ms

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Fig. 14

Streamlines indicating flow direction from deep surge CFD prediction at operating point 3, originating from (a) outlet, (b) inlet, and (c) both inlet and outlet

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