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Research Papers

Performance and Emission Analysis of Partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion

[+] Author and Article Information
Charu Vikram Srivatsa

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Kansas,
3138 Learned Hall,
1530 West 15th Street,
Lawrence, KS 66045
e-mail: srivatsacharuvikram@ku.edu

Jonathan Mattson

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Kansas,
3138 Learned Hall,
1530 West 15th Street,
Lawrence, KS 66045
e-mail: jmattson@ku.edu

Christopher Depcik

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Kansas,
3144C Learned Hall,
1530 West 15th Street,
Lawrence, KS 66045
e-mail: depcik@ku.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 13, 2018; final manuscript received December 17, 2018; published online January 8, 2019. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(6), 061004 (Jan 08, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1745; doi: 10.1115/1.4042334 History: Received December 13, 2018; Revised December 17, 2018

In order to investigate the performance and emissions behavior of a high compression ratio compression ignition (CI) engine operating in partially premixed charge compression ignition (PPCI) mode, a series of experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder engine with a high-pressure rail fuel injection system. This included a moderately advanced direct injection strategy to attempt PPCI combustion under low load conditions by varying the injection timing between 25 deg and 35 deg before top dead center (BTDC) in steps of 2.5 deg. Furthermore, during experimentation the fuel injection pressure, engine speed, and engine torque were kept constant. Performance parameters and emissions were measured and analyzed using a zero-dimensional heat release model. Compared to the baseline conventional 12.5 deg BTDC injection, in-cylinder pressure and temperature were higher at advanced timings for all load conditions considered. Additionally, NOx, PM, CO, and total hydrocarbon (THC) were higher than conventional results at the 0.5 N·m load condition. While PM emissions were lower, and CO and THC emissions were comparable to conventional injection results at the 1.5 N·m load condition between 25 deg and 30 deg BTDC, NOx emissions were relatively high. Hence, there was limited success in beating the NOx-PM trade-off. Moreover, since the start of combustion (SOC) occurred BTDC, the resulting higher peak combustion pressures restricted the operating condition to lower loads. As a result, further investigation including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and/or variance in fuel cetane number (CN) is required to achieve PPCI in a high compression ratio CI engine.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) In-cylinder pressure and (b) rate of heat release versus crank angle at 0.5 N·m engine torque for fuel injection timing from 12.5 deg to 35.0 deg BTDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Second derivative of pressure and (b) in-cylinder temperature versus crank angle at 0.5 N·m engine torque for fuel injection timing from 12.5 deg to 35.0 deg BTDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Fuel injection quantity and fuel to air ratio versus fuel injection timing for fuel injection timing sweep

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) In-cylinder pressure and (b) rate of heat release versus crank angle at 1.0 N·m engine torque for fuel injection timing from 25 deg to 35.0 deg BTDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Second derivative of pressure and (b) in-cylinder temperature versus crank angle at 1.0 N·m engine torque for fuel injection timing from 25 deg to 35.0 deg BTDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Rate of heat release and (b) in-cylinder pressure versus crank angle at 1.5 N·m engine torque for fuel injection timing from 12.5 deg to 35.0 deg BTDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) Second derivative of pressure and (b) in-cylinder temperature versus crank angle at 1.5 N·m engine torque for fuel injection timing from 12.5 deg to 35.0 deg BTDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Nitrogen oxides, filter smoke number, and particulate matter emissions at 0.5 N·m load for various fuel injection timings

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Overall schematic of low-temperature hydrocarbon oxidation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions at 0.5N·m load for various fuel injection timings

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

(a) Nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, and (b) carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions at 1.5 N·m load for various fuel injection timings

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Block diagram of single-cylinder test cell apparatus

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