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Research Papers

On the Effect of Engine Pulsations on the Performance of a Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Maria Esperanza Barrera-Medrano

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Imperial College London,
Exhibition Road, South Kensington Campus,
London SW7 2AZ, UK
e-mail: m.barrera-medrano@imperial.ac.uk

Ricardo Martinez-Botas

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Imperial College London,
Exhibition Road, South Kensington Campus,
London SW7 2AZ, UK
e-mail: r.botas@imperial.ac.uk

Isao Tomita

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd.,
Nagasaki 815-0392, Japan
e-mail: isao_tomita@mhi.co.jp

Seiichi Ibaraki

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd.,
Nagasaki 815-0392, Japan
e-mail: seiichi_ibaraki@mhi.co.jp

1Correspondin author.

Manuscript received July 16, 2018; final manuscript received January 10, 2019; published online February 11, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Alessandro Ferrari.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(8), 081001 (Feb 11, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1493; doi: 10.1115/1.4042609 History: Received July 16, 2018; Revised January 10, 2019

In an internal combustion engine, the centrifugal compressor is placed upstream of the inlet manifold and therefore, it is exposed an unsteady flow regime caused by the inlet valves of the cylinder arrangement. This valve motion sets a pulsating state at the compressor exit, having greater influence when the operation is near the surge margin of the compressor. This paper presents the experimental results of the evaluation of the surge dynamics on a compressor with induced downstream pulsating flow. Different pulsation levels are achieved by the variation of three different parameters on the induced pulse: pulse frequency, amplitude, and system storage volume (plenum). Each pulse parameter was evaluated independently in order to assess its effect on the compressor stability limit. The main effect on the surge margin of the compressor was found to be due to the presence of a storage volume in the system for all cases (steady/pulsating condition) and at all frequencies. It was found that the magnitude of the pulse frequency determines the hysteresis behavior of the system that leads to a phase difference between the convected terms and the acoustic dominated terms, and therefore this affects the onset of flow instability, surge, in the compression system under study.

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References

Greitzer, E. M. , 1976, “ Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors—Part I: Theoretical Compression System Model,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 98(2), pp. 190–197. [CrossRef]
Greitzer, E. M. , 1976, “ Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors—Part II: Experimental Results and Comparison With Theory,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 98(2), pp. 199–211. [CrossRef]
Tamaki, H. , 2015, “ Effect of Piping System on Testing of Centrifugal Compressors for Turbochargers,” Turbocharging Seminar, Tianjin, China, Sept.
Kerres, B. , and Cronhjort, A. , 2016, “Experimental Investigation of Upstream Installation Effects on the Turbocharger Compressor Map,” 12th International Conference on Turbochargers and Turbocharging, London, May 17–18.
Galindo, J. , Serrano, J. R. , Climent, H. , and Tiseira, A. , 2008, “ Experiments and Modelling of Surge in Small Centrifugal Compressor for Automotive Engines,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 32(3), pp. 818–826. [CrossRef]
Greitzer, E. M. , and Moore, F. K. , 1986, “ A Theory of Post-Stall Transients in Axial Compression Systems—Part II: Application,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 108(2), pp. 231–239. [CrossRef]
Schafer, C. , Sandor, I. , and Klaus, M. , 2016, “Influence of the Hot Gas Test Bench Piping on the Surge Line of an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor,” Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London.
Barrera-Medrano, M. E. , Newton, P. , Martinez-Botas, R. , Rajoo, S. , Tomita, I. , and Ibaraki, S. , 2016, “ Effect of Exit Pressure Pulsation on the Performance and Stability Limit of a Turbocharger Compressor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 139(5), p. 052601. [CrossRef]
Barrera-Medrano, M. E. , 2017, “ Effect of Exit Pressure Pulsations on the Performance and Stability Limit of a Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor, London,” Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College London, London, UK.
Cumpsty, N. A. , 1989, Compressor Aerodynamics, Longman Scientific & Technical, Essex, UK.
Barrera-Medrano, M. E. , Martinez-Botas, R. , Tomita , I. , and Ibaraki, S. , 2017, “ Correlation and Evaluation of the Influence of Engine Pulsations on the Surge Limit of a Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor,” Second International Symposium on Energy Boosting and Energy Recovery, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Sept. 11–13.
Fink, D. A. , Cumpsty, N. A. , and Greitzer, E. M. , 1992, “ Surge Dynamics in a Free-Spool Centrifugal Compressor System,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114(2), pp. 321–332. [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 1

Compressor experimental facility—schematic diagram

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Fig. 2

Pulse comparison between real engine data (blue) and generated pulse by means of pulsating flow device (red)

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Fig. 3

Compressor performance map—operating region of interest (red)

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Fig. 4

Sensor locations on the compressor experimental facility

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Fig. 5

Example of experimental results shown throughout this paper: (a) instantaneous deviation (red crosses) and averaged operating point (blue point) and (b) experimental data points distribution used to build the hysteresis loop found in (a)

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Fig. 6

Instantaneous operating point behavior—reference condition: inter VP, 66.67 Hz

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Fig. 7

Hysteresis behavior analysis for reference condition: intermediate VP, 66.67 Hz

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Fig. 8

Phase shift between outlet static pressure and volume flow rate for: (a) #1 surge, (b) #2 peak PR, (c) #3 peak efficiency, and (d) #4 large flow

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Fig. 9

Volume effect on instantaneous operating point: (a) #1 surge, (b) #2 peak PR, (c) #3 peak efficiency, and (d) #4 large flow

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Fig. 10

Three different compression systems and their instability behavior [10]

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Fig. 11

Frequency effect on the instantaneous operating point: (a) #1 surge, (b) #2 peak PR, (c) #3 peak efficiency, and (d) #4 large flow

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Fig. 12

Hysteresis loop rotation sequence for the tested frequencies

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Fig. 13

Amplitude effect on instantaneous point: (a) #1 surge, (b) #2 peak PR, (c) #3 peak efficiency, and (d) #4 large flow

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