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Research Papers

Cycle-to-Cycle NO and NOx Emissions From a HSDI Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Felix Leach

University of Oxford,
Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK
e-mail: felix.leach@eng.ox.ac.uk

Martin Davy

University of Oxford,
Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK

Mark Peckham

Cambustion,
Cambridge CB1 8DH, UK

Manuscript received March 11, 2019; final manuscript received March 15, 2019; published online April 1, 2019. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(8), 081007 (Apr 01, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-19-1108; doi: 10.1115/1.4043218 History: Received March 11, 2019; Revised March 15, 2019

Engine-out NOx emissions from diesel engines continue to be a major topic of research interest. While substantial understanding has been obtained of engine-out (i.e., before any aftertreatment) NOx formation and reduction techniques, not least exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) which is now well established and fitted to production vehicles, much less data are available on cycle resolved NOx emissions. In this work, crank-angle resolved NO and NOx measurements have been taken from a high-speed light duty diesel engine at test conditions both with and without EGR. These have been combined with 1D data of exhaust flow, and this used to form a mass average of NO and NOx emissions per cycle. These results have been compared with combustion data and other emissions. The results show that there is a very strong correlation (R2 > 0.95) between the NOx emitted per cycle and the peak cylinder pressure of that cycle. In addition, the crank-angle resolved NO and NOx measurements also reveal that there is a difference in NO : NO2 ratio (where NO2 is assumed to be the difference between NO and NOx) during the exhaust period, with proportionally more NO2 being emitted during the blowdown period compared to the rest of the exhaust stroke.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

PMax versus NO correlation from Ball et al. [14]

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Fig. 2

Example exhaust mass flow rate from 1D model

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Fig. 3

Example time-aligned CLD500 signal (test point 3)

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Fig. 4

NO and NOx emissions from sequential engine cycles at test point 2

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Fig. 5

Cycle PMax versus NOx at test point 2 (0% EGR)

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Fig. 6

Cycle PMax versus NOx at test point 4 (15% EGR)

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Fig. 7

Correlation coefficients for measured cycle NO and NOx against PMax of that cycle

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Fig. 8

Correlations between cycle NOx emissions and angle of maximum cylinder pressure (APMAX), initial burn duration (CA0-10), burn duration (CA10-90), maximum in-cylinder temperature (TMax), and cycle IMEP.(test point 2)

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Fig. 9

Rescaled NO and NOx emissions at test point 3 (0% EGR)

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Fig. 10

Rescaled NO and NOx emissions at test point 4 (0% EGR)

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Fig. 11

Rescaled NO and NOx emissions at test point 1 (45% EGR)

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Fig. 12

Rescaled NO and NOx emissions at test point 2 (32% EGR)

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Fig. 13

Single cycle NO and NOx emissions at test point 4 (as Fig. 10)

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