Research Papers

In-Cylinder CO2 Sampling Using Skip-Firing Method

[+] Author and Article Information
Matthew Duckhouse

Cambustion Ltd.,
Unit J6, The Paddocks,
347 Cherry Hinton Road,
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB1 8DH, UK
e-mail: mpd18@imperial.ac.uk

Mark Peckham

Cambustion Ltd.,
Unit J6, The Paddocks,
347 Cherry Hinton Road,
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB1 8DH, UK
e-mail: msp@cambustion.com

Byron Mason

Department of Aeronautical and
Automotive Engineering,
Loughborough University,
Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
e-mail: b.mason2@lboro.ac.uk

Edward Winward

Department of Aeronautical and
Automotive Engineering,
Stuart Miller Building,
Loughborough University,
Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
e-mail: e.winward@lboro.ac.uk

Matthew Hammond

Cambustion Ltd.,
Unit J6, The Paddocks,
347 Cherry Hinton Road,
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB1 8DH, UK
e-mail: mhammond@cambustion.com

1Present address: Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

2Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 18, 2019; final manuscript received April 1, 2019; published online April 25, 2019. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(8), 081018 (Apr 25, 2019) (13 pages) Paper No: GTP-19-1135; doi: 10.1115/1.4043396 History: Received March 18, 2019; Revised April 01, 2019

Skip-firing (or cylinder de-activation) was assessed as a method of sampling CO2 directly in the cylinder at higher speeds than previously possible. CO2 was directly sampled from one cylinder of a 1 L three-cylinder gasoline engine to determine the residual gas fraction (RGF) using a fast response CO/CO2 analyzer. Acquisition of data for similar measurements is typically limited to engine speeds of below 1300  revolutions per minute (rpm) to allow full resolution of the sample through the analyzer that has an 8 ms finite response time. In order to sample in-cylinder CO2 at higher engine speeds, a skip-firing method is developed. By shutting off ignition intermittently during engine operation, the residual CO2 from the last firing cycle can be measured at significantly higher engine speeds. Comparison of RGF CO2 at low speeds for normal and skip-fire operation shows good correlation. This suggests that skip-firing is a suitable method for directly measuring internal exhaust gas recirculation up to at least 3000 rpm. The measurements obtained may provide a useful tool for validating internal exhaust gas recirculation models and could be used to calculate combustion air–fuel ratio from the CO and CO2 content of the burned gas. These are typically complicated parameters to predict due to the slow response time and sensitivity to hydrocarbons of wide-band oxygen sensors. A differing pattern of RGF change with increasing speed was seen between normal and skip-fire operation.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of cambustion NDIR500 sampling system

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Fig. 2

Example of in-cylinder CO2 showing residual gas [1]

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Fig. 3

Schematic showing a sample probe fitted to a modified spark plug

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Fig. 4

Photograph of sample head with probe fitted to engine

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Fig. 5

Photograph of sample probe fitted to modified spark plug

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Fig. 6

Photograph of probe tip located at spark plug electrode

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Fig. 7

In-cylinder CO2 trace showing peak and residual levels

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Fig. 8

Plot of cylinder pressure and in-cylinder CO2 at 1100 rpm

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Fig. 9

Plot of all RGF values for several tests

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Fig. 10

RGF against engine speed at same engine load

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Fig. 11

Raw CO2 values at varying engine speeds

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Fig. 12

RGF against load at various engine speeds

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Fig. 13

Plot of cylinder pressure and in-cylinder CO2 at 2900 rpm

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Fig. 14

Evidence of RGF variability at higher engine speeds

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Fig. 15

Timing diagram of ignition (I) and nonignition (N) modes

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Fig. 16

Plot showing skip-firing technique

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Fig. 17

Plot showing one skip fire result at 3000 rpm

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Fig. 18

Comparison of normal versus skip fire operation RGF at low speed

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Fig. 19

Comparison of normal versus skip fire operation RGF at high speed

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Fig. 20

Comparison of normal versus skip fire operation RGF

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Fig. 21

Raw CO2 values at varying engine speeds when skip-firing

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Fig. 22

Plot of skip-fire RGF at different loads

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Fig. 23

Raw CO2 values at different skip-fire speed points varying load



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