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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Investigation of the Boundary Layer Flow Under Engine-Like Conditions Using Particle Image Velocimetry

[+] Author and Article Information
Daming Liu

School of Automotive and Transportation,
Tianjin University of Technology and Education,
No. 1310 Dagu South Road, Hexi District,
Tianjin 300222, China
e-mail: ldam@tju.edu.cn

Tianyou Wang

State Key Laboratory of Engines,
Tianjin University,
No. 92 Weijin Road,
Tianjin 300072, China
e-mail: wangtianyou@tju.edu.cn

Ming Jia

School of Energy and Power Engineering,
Dalian University of Technology,
No. 2 Linggong Road, Ganjingzi District,
Dalian, Liaoning, 116024, China
e-mail: jiaming@dlut.edu.cn

Wei Li

State Key Laboratory of Engines,
Tianjin University,
No. 92 Weijin Road,
Tianjin 300072, China
e-mail: liwei1@tju.edu.cn

Zhen Lu

State Key Laboratory of Engines,
Tianjin University,
No. 92 Weijin Road,
Tianjin 300072, China
e-mail: luzhen@tju.edu.cn

Xudong Zhen

School of Automotive and Transportation,
Tianjin University of Technology and Education,
No. 1310 Dagu South Road, Hexi District,
Tianjin 300222, China
e-mail: xituwa@tju.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received May 15, 2017; final manuscript received April 6, 2019; published online April 25, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Timothy J. Jacobs.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(8), 082801 (Apr 25, 2019) (16 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1169; doi: 10.1115/1.4043444 History: Received May 15, 2017; Revised April 06, 2019

The turbulent boundary layer flow in internal combustion (IC) engines has a significant effect on the in-cylinder flow and the wall heat transfer. A detailed analysis of the in-cylinder near-wall flow was carried out on an optical steady flow test bench by using high-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) in order to characterize the in-cylinder boundary layer flow in this study. The difference between the in-cylinder boundary layer and the canonical turbulent boundary layer was analyzed. The experimental results show that small-scale vortices with a length scale of about 1–2 mm in the instantaneous flow fields appeared in the wall jet region due to the entrainment of the free jet in the outer region of the wall jet. The viscous sublayer thickness decreased from 0.5 mm to 0.3 mm as the valve lift increased from 2.32 mm to 7.975 mm and the pressure drop from 0.5 kPa to 1 kPa. The dimensionless velocity profile is in good agreement with the law of the wall in the viscous sublayer. However, no obvious logarithmic law distribution region was observed in the logarithmic layer. The distribution of the Reynolds stress and the turbulent kinetic energy is similar to that of the canonical turbulent boundary layer. But the Reynolds stress had a much larger magnitude because the turbulent velocity measured in this boundary layer included not only the turbulence generated by wall shear but also the large-scale turbulent vortices caused by the wall jet.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

PIV measurement system

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Fig. 2

Dummy cylinder types

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Fig. 3

The raw image and the calculated velocity (Z1-H5 position): (a) raw image (No. 91 frame), (b) instantaneous velocity field (No. 91 frame), (c) ensemble average velocity field (100 frames), (d) velocity field calculated by SOC (100 frames), and (e) measurement region

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Fig. 4

Measurement regions for the boundary-layer flow

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Fig. 5

Ensemble-averaged velocity distribution at symmetric plane of square tube: (a) ΔP = 1 kPa, (b) ΔP =0.5 kPa, and (c) ΔP =0.06 kPa

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Fig. 6

Near wall profile of the dimensionless ensemble-averaged velocity for square tube flow: (a) high resolution (2 mm × 2 mm) and (b) medium resolution (5 mm × 5 mm))

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Fig. 7

Comparison of the global flow in square-section and circle-section dummy cylinders (Z2-L1 position, ΔP =1 kPa): (a) square-section (VL = 2.32 mm), (b) circle-section (VL = 2.32 mm), (c) square-section (VL = 5.80 mm), (d) circle-section (VL = 5.80 mm), (e) square-section (VL = 7.975 mm), and (f) circle-section (VL = 7.975 mm)

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Fig. 8

Near wall distribution of the ensemble-averaged velocity in the symmetric plane of the cylinder (Z1-M5 position): (a) VL = 7.975 mm (ΔP =1 kPa), (b) VL = 7.975 mm (ΔP =0.5 kPa), (c) VL = 5.80 mm (ΔP =1 kPa), (d) VL = 5.80 mm (ΔP =0.5 kPa), (e) VL = 2.32 mm (ΔP =1 kPa), (f) VL = 2.32 mm (ΔP =0.5 kPa), and (g) measurement region

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Fig. 9

Small scale vortices in the near wall instantaneous velocity fields (Z1-M3 region, VL = 7.975 mm, and ΔP =1 kPa)

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Fig. 10

Profiles of the dimensionless ensemble-averaged velocity in the boundary layer in the under-valve plane (Z2-H4 position (left), Z2-H5 position (right)): (a) VL = 7.975 mm, (b) VL = 5.80 mm, (c) VL = 2.32 mm, and (d) measurement regions

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Fig. 11

Profiles of the dimensionless ensemble-averaged velocity in the boundary layer in the symmetric plane (Z1-H4 position (left) and Z1-H5 position (right)): (a) VL = 7.975 mm, (b) VL = 5.80 mm, (c) VL = 2.32 mm, and (d) measurement regions

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Fig. 12

Reynolds stress and turbulent kinetic energy normalized by the friction velocity (ΔP =1 kPa, Z1-H5 position (left), Z2-H5 position (right)): (a) VL = 7.975 mm, (b) VL = 5.80 mm, (c) VL = 2.32 mm, and (d) measurement regions

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Fig. 13

Variation of the Reynolds stress as the pressure drop increasing (Z2-H5 position, VL = 7.975 mm): (a) Re = 16,277 (ΔP =0.06 kPa), (b) Re = 50,409 (ΔP =0.5 kPa), (c) Re = 71,582 (ΔP =1 kPa), and (d) measurement regions

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