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Research Papers

Ignition of Diesel Pilot Fuel in Dual-Fuel Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Marcus Grochowina

Institute of Thermodynamics,
Technical University of Munich,
Garching 85747, Germany,
e-mail: Grochowina@td.mw.tum.de

Daniel Hertel, Simon Tartsch, Thomas Sattelmayer

Institute of Thermodynamics,
Technical University of Munich,
Garching 85747, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 11, 2019; final manuscript received April 10, 2019; published online May 2, 2019. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(8), 081021 (May 02, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-19-1111; doi: 10.1115/1.4043485 History: Received March 11, 2019; Revised April 10, 2019

Dual-fuel (DF) engines offer great fuel flexibility combined with low emissions in gas mode. The main source of energy in this mode is provided by gaseous fuel, while the diesel fuel acts only as an ignition source. For this reason, the reliable autoignition of the pilot fuel is of utmost importance for combustion in DF engines. However, the autoignition of the pilot fuel suffers from low compression temperatures caused by Miller valve timings. These valve timings are applied to increase efficiency and reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. Previous studies have investigated the influence of injection parameters and operating conditions on ignition and combustion in DF engines using a unique periodically chargeable combustion cell. Direct light high-speed images and pressure traces clearly revealed the effects of injection parameters and operating conditions on ignition and combustion. However, these measurement techniques are only capable of observing processes after ignition. In order to overcome this drawback, a high-speed shadowgraph technique was applied in this study to examine the processes prior to ignition. Measurements were conducted to investigate the influence of compression temperature and injection pressure on spray formation and ignition. Results showed that the autoignition of diesel pilot fuel strongly depends on the fuel concentration within the spray. The high-speed shadowgraph images revealed that in the case of very low fuel concentration within the pilot spray, only the first stage of the two-stage ignition occurs. This leads to large cycle-to-cycle variations and misfiring. However, it was found that a reduced number of injection holes counteract these effects. The comparison of a diesel injector with ten-holes and a modified injector with five-holes showed shorter ignition delays, more stable ignition and a higher number of ignited sprays on a percentage basis for the five-hole nozzle.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Focus of the current study

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Fig. 2

Optically accessible combustion cell

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Fig. 3

Preconditioning periphery

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Fig. 4

Sequence of a combustion cycle

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Fig. 5

Shadowgraphy application

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Fig. 6

Shadowgraph image of the diesel pilot injection 0.8 ms after SOE. Diesel pilot injector located in the center and the valves on the left and right side.

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Fig. 7

Spray penetration (left), spray angle and diameter (center), and model for the spray volume calculation (right)

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Fig. 8

Penetration of the diesel pilot sprays

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Fig. 9

Approximation of the penetration using logarithmic and root functions

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Fig. 10

Approximation and extrapolation of the diesel pilot penetration after SOE

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Fig. 11

Two-stage ignition characteristic of complex hydrocarbons [26]

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Fig. 12

Pre-reaction visualized via shadowgraph technique

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Fig. 13

Phases of spray formation and ignition

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Fig. 14

Shadowgraph images of the variation of the combustion chamber temperature

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Fig. 15

Shadowgraph images of the variation of the rail pressure

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Fig. 16

Measured diesel pilot penetrations and interpolation curves of the rail pressure variation

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Fig. 17

Pressure traces of the nozzle variation

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Fig. 18

Direct light high-speed images of the variation of the number of nozzle holes

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Fig. 19

Shadowgraph high-speed images of the variation of the number of nozzle holes

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Fig. 20

Measured diesel pilot penetrations and interpolation curves of the nozzle hole variation

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