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Research Papers

Accuracy of Diesel Engine Combustion Metrics Over the Full Range of Engine Operating Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Peter G. Dowell, Sam Akehurst

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Bath,
Bath BA2 7AY, UK

Richard D. Burke

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Bath,
Bath BA2 7AY, UK
e-mail: R.D.Burke@bath.ac.uk

Manuscript received March 11, 2019; final manuscript received May 4, 2019; published online May 23, 2019. Assoc. Editor: William Northrop.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(9), 091005 (May 23, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-19-1115; doi: 10.1115/1.4043700 History: Received March 11, 2019; Revised May 04, 2019

Measuring and analyzing combustion is a critical part of the development of high efficiency and low emitting engines. Faced with changes in legislation such as real driving emissions (RDE) and the fundamental change in the role of the combustion engine with the introduction of hybrid-electric powertrains, it is essential that combustion analysis can be conducted accurately across the full range of operating conditions. In this work, the sensitivity of five key combustion metrics is investigated with respect to eight necessary assumptions used for single zone diesel combustion analysis. The sensitivity was evaluated over the complete operating range of the engine using a combination of experimental and modeling techniques. This provides a holistic understanding of combustion measurement accuracy. For several metrics, it was found that the sensitivity at the mid-speed/load condition was not representative of sensitivity across the full operating range, in particular at low speeds and loads. Peak heat release rate and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) were found to be most sensitive to the determination of top dead center (TDC) and the assumption of in-cylinder gas properties. An error of 0.5 deg in the location of TDC would cause on average a 4.2% error in peak heat release rate. The ratio of specific heats had a strong impact on peak heat release with an error of 8% for using the assumption of a constant value. A novel method for determining TDC was proposed which combined a filling and emptying simulation with measured data obtained experimentally from an advanced engine test rig with external boosting system. This approach improved the robustness of the prediction of TDC which will allow engineers to measure accurate combustion data in operating conditions representative of in-service applications.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Location of test points for data capture

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Fig. 2

Engine air path configuration with turbocharger emulation hardware

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Fig. 3

Layout of the filling and emptying model

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Fig. 4

Motored pressure illustrating thermodynamic and volumetric TDC and loss angle

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Fig. 5

Heat transfer coefficients as calculated by the three different correlations at 2500 rpm, 120 N·m

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Fig. 6

Parameter variation over different speed and load test points, normalized by dividing by the maximum variation (parameters with little variation have been omitted for clarity)

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Fig. 7

Predicted αTDC compared with measured αTDC for different inlet pressure and speed points using an interpolating cubic spline surface fit (contour) to the data point (circles)

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Fig. 8

Mean pegging error compared to the filling and emptying model against speed for (a) fixed polytropic constant pegging, (b) intake manifold pressure pegging, and (c) variable polytropic constant pegging

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Fig. 9

Cyclic variability at different operating conditions: (a) maximum standard deviation versus cycles averaged and (b) standard deviation and mean signal at different points

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Fig. 10

Comparison of different filter techniques at 2500 rpm, 120 N·m

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Fig. 11

Average trapped mass prediction error versus engine speed

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Fig. 12

Average percentage error in estimated fuel burnt versus measured fuel consumption with different heat transfer models

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Fig. 13

For the operating condition 2500 rpm, 120 N·m: (a) gas fraction model output, (b) ratio of specific heats, and (c) gross RoHR illustrating the impact of three different assumptions for ratio of specific heats: 1—function of gas composition and temperature, 2—function of temperature only, and 3—a constant value

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Fig. 14

Percentage contribution to gross heat release from blow-by losses

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