Research Papers

Experimental Analysis and Phenomenological Model for Liquid Jet Breakup in Swirling Flow of Air

[+] Author and Article Information
Tushar Sikroria

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur, UP 208016, India
e-mail: tsikroria0@gmail.com

Abhijit Kushari

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur, UP 208016, India
e-mail: akushari@iitk.ac.in

Manuscript received September 26, 2018; final manuscript received June 13, 2019; published online July 12, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Michael Mueller.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(9), 091015 (Jul 12, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1627; doi: 10.1115/1.4044060 History: Received September 26, 2018; Revised June 13, 2019

This paper presents detailed analysis of an experimental investigation of the impact of swirl number of subsonic cross-flowing air stream on liquid jet breakup at an airflow Mach number of 0.12, which is typical in gas turbine conditions. Experiments are performed for four different swirl numbers (0, 0.2, 0.42, and 0.73) using swirl vanes at air inlet having angles of 0 deg, 15 deg, 30 deg, and 45 deg, respectively. Liquid to air momentum flux ratios (q) have been varied from 1 to 25. High-speed images of the interaction of liquid and air streams are captured and processed to estimate the jet penetration height as well as the breakup location for various flow conditions. The results show unique behavior for each swirl number, which departs from the straight flow correlations available in the literature. Based on the results, an attempt has been made to understand the physics of the phenomena and come up with a simplified physical model for prediction of jet penetration. Furthermore, the high-speed images show a dominant influence of liquid column fluttering on fracture mechanism (column or shear breakup mechanism).

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Fig. 1

Typical swirl vane geometry

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Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup [21] and (b) geometry of the field of study

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Fig. 3

Camera positions for vanes

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Fig. 4

Velocity vectors for the airflow in breakup planes for different swirlers

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Fig. 5

Flow regimes in a swirling flow

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Fig. 6

Radial variation of pressure gradient for different swirlers

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Fig. 7

Approximation of the velocity profile for swirling flows

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Fig. 8

Approximate trends of measured pressure gradients for different swirlers

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Fig. 9

Velocity profile approximations for different swirlers

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Fig. 10

Variation of the Penetration height with momentum flux ratio (q) for different swirl numbers

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Fig. 11

Penetration height with error bars (showing temporal fluctuation) for different swirl numbers (S) at some particular values of momentum flux ratio (q)

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Fig. 12

A representation of breakup process

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Fig. 13

Local Weber number variation along the radial direction for different swirlers

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Fig. 14

Spray outline trace for 45 deg swirl vane (S = 0.73) at q = 25, showing both surface as well as column breakup mode (mixed mode)

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Fig. 15

Penetration height predictions by developed correlations for different swirl numbers

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Fig. 16

Penetration height predictions by correlations developed

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Fig. 17

Penetration length variation with momentum flux ratio for different swirlers

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Fig. 18

Straight jet and wave dominance regimes at q = 8 for (a) S = 0 (0 deg) and (b) S = 0.2 (15 deg)

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Fig. 19

Instantaneous breakup locations for q = 17 and S = 0

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Fig. 20

Standard deviation for all test conditions in (a) penetration length and (b) penetration height



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