0
Research Papers

Comparison of Ultra-High Rail Pressures and Postinjections for Soot Reduction With Massive Exhaust Gas Recirculation

[+] Author and Article Information
Ryan M. Ogren

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Iowa State University,
2529 Union Drive,
Ames, IA 50011
e-mail: rmogren@iastate.edu

Song-Charng Kong


Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Iowa State University,
2529 Union Drive,
Ames, IA 50011
e-mail: Kong@iastate.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 3, 2019; final manuscript received June 20, 2019; published online July 12, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Alessandro Ferrari.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(9), 091017 (Jul 12, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-19-1088; doi: 10.1115/1.4044133 History: Received March 03, 2019; Revised June 20, 2019

In this study, the application of ultra-high fuel injection pressure (up to 300 MPa) is compared with that of a post injection strategy for the reduction of soot at medium load conditions with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates greater than 40%. Emissions were predominantly studied at the engine's maximum brake torque speed of 1600 rpm. A 4.5-L, four-cylinder diesel engine with series turbochargers and a high-pressure EGR loop was used for all tests. Results indicate that, ultra-high injection pressures may not have large effects on hydrocarbons (HC) or CO emissions. Small soot reductions were achieved at the expense of increased NOx emissions. Post injections resulted in larger soot reductions for a small increase in NOx while allowing lower fuel pressures to be utilized. The increase in NOx emissions with a post injection was observed to be comparatively less at increased engine speeds. For operation at high EGR, post injections were observed to be more effective at reducing soot than ultra-high injection pressures. Both injection pressure and post injections were observed to have small to negligible effects on engine fuel consumption, leaving EGR and injection timing as the primary efficiency drivers at the conditions studied.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Kalghatgi, G. T. , 2014, “ The Outlook for Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines,” Int. J. Engine Res., 15(4), pp. 383–398. [CrossRef]
Dec, J. E. , 1997, “ A Conceptual Model of DI Diesel Combustion Based on Laser-Sheet Imaging,” SAE Technical Paper No. 970873.
Praveena, V. , and Leenus, J. M. M. , 2018, “ A Review on Various After Treatment Techniques to Reduce NOx Emissions in a CI Engine,” J. Energy Inst., 91(5), pp. 704–720. [CrossRef]
Yoon, S. , Kim, H. , Kim, D. , and Park, S. , 2016, “ Effect of the Fuel Injection Strategy on Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration in a Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 138(10), p. 102810. [CrossRef]
Dec, J. E. , 2009, “ Advanced Compression-Ignition Engines-Understanding the in-Cylinder Processes,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32(2), pp. 2727–2742. [CrossRef]
D'Ambrosio, S. , and Ferrari, A. , 2015, “ Potential of Double Pilot Injection Strategies Optimized With the Design of Experiments Procedure to Improve Diesel Engine Emissions and Performance,” Appl. Energ., 155, pp. 918–932. [CrossRef]
Mendez, S. , and Thirouard, B. , 2008, “ Using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel Combustion: Potential to Improve Emissions, Noise and Fuel Economy Trade-Off in Low CR Engines,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 1(1), pp. 662–674. [CrossRef]
Liu, L. , Horibe, N. , Komizo, T. , Tamura, I. , and Ishiyama, T. , 2014, “ An Experimental Study on Smoke Reduction Effect of Post Injection in Combination With Pilot Injection for a Diesel Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(4), p. 041502. [CrossRef]
Busch, S. , Zha, K. , Warey, A. , Pesce, F. , and Peterson, R. , 2016, “ On the Reduction of Combustion Noise by a Close-Coupled Pilot Injection in a Small-Bore Direct-Injection Diesel Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 138(10), p. 102804. [CrossRef]
Hessel, R. , Reitz, R. D. , Musculus, M. , O'Connor, J. , and Flowers, D. , 2014, “ A CFD Study of Post Injection Influences on Soot Formation and Oxidation Under Diesel-Like Operating Conditions,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 7(2), p. 694. [CrossRef]
Osada, H. , Uchida, N. , Shimada, K. , and Aoyagi, Y. , 2013, “ Reexamination of Multiple Fuel Injections for Improving the Thermal Efficiency of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2013-01-0909.
Engelmayer, M. , Wimmer, A. , Taucher, G. , Hirschl, G. , and Kammerdiener, T. , 2015, “ Impact of Very High Injection Pressure on Soot Emissions of Medium Speed Large Diesel Engines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(10), p. 101509. [CrossRef]
Natti, K. , Sinha, A. , Hoerter, C. , Andersson, P. , Andersson, J. , Lohmann, C. , Schultz, D. , Cho, N. , and Winsor, R. , 2013, “ Studies on the Impact of 300 MPa Injection Pressure on Engine Performance, Gaseous and Particulate Emissions,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 6(1), pp. 336–351. [CrossRef]
Ogren, R. , and Kong, S. , 2018, “ Ultra-High Fuel Injection Pressure With Massive EGR to Enable Simultaneous Reduction of Soot and NOx Emissions,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2018-01-0227.
Koci, C. , Dempsey, A. , Nudd, J. , and Knier, B. , 2017, “ Understanding Hydrocarbon Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Combining Experimental and Computational Methods,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 10(3), p. 1093. [CrossRef]
Cheng, A. S., and Mueller, C. J. , 2017, “ Conceptual Investigation of the Origins of Hydrocarbon Emissions From Mixing-Controlled, Compression-Ignition Combustion,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 10(3), pp. 1228–1237. [CrossRef]
Kook, S. , Bae, C. , and Miles, P. C. , 2006, “ The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2006-01-0197.
Maiboom, A. , Tauzia, X. , and Hétet, J.-F. , 2008, “ Experimental Study of Various Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Combustion and Emissions of an Automotive Direct Injection Diesel Engine,” Energy, 33(1), pp. 22–34. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Q. , Ogren, R. M. , and Kong, S.-C. , 2017, “ Application of Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm to the Parameter Optimization of a Diesel Engine With Pilot Fuel Injections,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 139(11), p. 112801. [CrossRef]
AVL List GmbH, 2005, “ AVL 415S Variable Sampling Meter Operating Manual for Devices With Serial Numbers of 2500 or Higher,” Graz, Austria.
Moreno, C. J. , Stenlaas, O. , and Tunestal, P. , 2017, “ Influence of Small Pilot on Main Injection in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2017-01-0708.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of engine test setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

BSNOx and BSSoot versus main SOI at 40% EGR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

BSNOx and BSSoot versus main SOI at 42% EGR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

BSCO, BSHC, and BSFC versus main SOI at 40% EGR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

BSCO, BSHC, and BSFC versus main SOI at 42% EGR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

CA10 and CA50 at 40% (left) and 42% EGR (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

HRR and cylinder pressure with multiple main SOIs and injection pressures at 40% EGR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

BSNOx and BSSoot versus main SOI at 44% EGR (triple injection data uses dashed lines)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

BSCO, BSHC, and BSFC versus main SOI at 44% EGR (triple injection data uses dashed lines)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

HRR and cylinder pressure with multiple main SOIs and injection pressures at 44% EGR for double (top row) and triple (bottom row) injections

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

BSNOx and BSSoot versus main SOI at 42% EGR and 250 MPa injection pressure (triple injection data uses dashed lines)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

BSCO, BSHC, and BSFC versus main SOI at 42% EGR and 250 MPa injection pressure (triple injection data uses dashed lines)

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In