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Research Papers

Impact of Fuel Composition on Gas Turbine Engine Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Dan Burnes

Solar Turbines Incorporated,
2200 Pacific Highway,
San Diego, CA 92101
e-mail: Burnes_Daniel_W@solarturbines.com

Alejandro Camou

Solar Turbines Incorporated,
2200 Pacific Highway,
San Diego, CA 92101
e-mail: Camou_Alejandro@solarturbines.com

Manuscript received June 25, 2019; final manuscript received July 9, 2019; published online July 31, 2019. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(10), 101006 (Jul 31, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-19-1321; doi: 10.1115/1.4044238 History: Received June 25, 2019; Revised July 09, 2019

An industrial gas turbine can run on a wide variety of fuels to produce power. Depending on the fuel composition and resulting properties, specifically the hydrogen–carbon ratio, the available output power, operability, and emissions of the engine can vary significantly. This study is an examination of how different fuels can affect the output characteristics of Solar Turbines Incorporated industrial engines and highlights the benefits of using fuels with higher hydrogen–carbon ratios including higher power, higher efficiency, and lower carbon emissions. This study also highlights critical combustion operability issues that need to be considered such as auto-ignition, flashback, blowout, and combustion instabilities that become more prominent when varying the hydrogen–carbon ratio significantly. Our intent is to provide a clear and concise reference to edify the reader examining attributes of fuels with different properties and how natural gas is superior to other fossil fuels with lower hydrogen carbon ratios in terms of carbon emissions, power, and efficiency.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Taurus 60 h-s diagram at full load 59 °F ISO day using different fuels

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Fig. 2

Standard station designations used on a Solar Turbines engine

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Fig. 3

Titan 250 performance relative to CH4 at full load 59 °F ISO day for various fuels from hydrogen to diesel (DF-2)

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Fig. 4

Titan 250 performance relative to CH4 at full load 59 °F ISO day versus H/Cm for various hydrocarbon fuels

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Fig. 5

Titan 250 performance improvement relative to DF-2 at full load 59 °F ISO day versus H/Cm

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Fig. 6

Titan 250 CO2 and H2O emissions change relative to DF-2 at full load 59 °F ISO day versus H/Cm

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Fig. 7

Stochiometric equations of the primary fuels noted within this study

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Fig. 8

Variation of fuel LHV and H/C with respect to the number of carbon atoms for various n-alkane hydrocarbons including H2 and C(s)

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Fig. 9

Gas chromatograph of the composition of jet fuel (Jet-A/JP-8/JP-5) [9]

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Fig. 10

Variation in specific energies with relative density of fuels [9]

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Fig. 11

Effect of temperature on LFL of 10 paraffin (alkane) hydrocarbons in air at atmospheric pressure [16]

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Fig. 12

Minimum auto-ignition temperature of paraffin hydrocarbons in air as a function of average carbon chain length [16]

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Fig. 13

Ignition temperatures for petroleum fuels [9]

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