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RESEARCH PAPERS

J. Eng. Power. 1963;85(1):1-6. doi:10.1115/1.3675208.

The blade-element method has been used effectively in the solution of the design problem for axial-flow turbomachines. A considerable body of data has been acquired to support the use of this system. The method has been applied in the investigation reported in this paper to the performance-prediction problem for blade rows in incompressible and compressible flows. Radial distributions of velocity and fluid properties were determined by numerical solution of the radial equilibrium condition, with radial entropy gradients included by using blade-element losses estimated from available experimental information. The effect of a loss gradient on the predicted performance of a typical axial-flow pump configuration is indicated and, for the case of an axial-flow compressor rotor operating in air, performance predicted is compared with experimentally measured performance.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1963;85(1):9-25. doi:10.1115/1.3675231.

A systematic approach leading to a unique empirical determination of individual thermocouple characteristics is described. This is based on the application of four premises whose formulation is justified by the results. Typical thermocouple calibration data are analyzed, and the most probable results are presented. Improved tables of thermocouple reference values are given.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1963;85(1):27-32. doi:10.1115/1.3675212.

Liquid baths are a convenient and practical tool for determining the response time of thermometers; but, unless the heat-transfer coefficient of the liquid is known, the results obtained by dip testing cannot be reduced to a common denominator or compared with the results obtained from different liquids or by other methods. Since it is impractical to compute the heat-transfer coefficient for the three-dimensional flow pattern around a thermomenter when it is suddenly immersed in an agitated liquid, a different approach is required. This paper describes an experimental method for determining the heat-transfer coefficient in any liquid. A relationship between the heat-transfer coefficients and the physical properties of liquids agitated by stirring is developed from dimensionless parameters. Coefficients determined experimentally are correlated by these relationships for molten salt, water, and oil. Correlation in a salt bath at various rates of agitation is within ±10 per cent as compared to the ±20 per cent usually obtained with the same parameters for flow of fluids around a cylinder, and is even better in a water and an oil bath at a fixed rate of agitation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1963;85(1):33-44. doi:10.1115/1.3675213.

This paper contains a study of the solubility of copper and its oxides in supercritical steam which was undertaken because of difficulties experienced with copper deposition in the high-pressure turbine of the Ohio Power Company’s Philo 6 supercritical steam-generating cycle. This study shows that copper has appreciable solubility in superheated supercritical steam. The extent of solubility is apparently a function of the oxidation state of the metal, with the highest state of oxidation (CuO) showing the greatest solubility. A slightly increased solubility was effected by increasing pH values from ∼7.5 to ∼9.5 with ammonia. It is also shown that copper solubility is principally a function of pressure over the narrow temperature range tested (900–1150 F) probably because this parameter has the greatest effect on specific volume.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1963;85(1):46-67. doi:10.1115/1.3675217.

In recent years gas turbines have been introduced into operational warships of the Royal Navy as propulsion machinery for both high-speed craft and major warships, as electric generator prime movers, and for certain miscellaneous applications. Taking each of these applications in turn, the paper gives details of the important installation problems which have been met and the practical operating experience both ashore and afloat which has been obtained in recent years with eight different designs of British Naval gas turbines. In the general conclusions an attempt is made to assess the main lessons which have been learned from the recent operating experience with the Naval gas turbines described in the paper.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1963;85(1):72-83. doi:10.1115/1.3675226.

Radial turbines have been used for hydraulic, steam, and gas turbine service. In hydraulic turbine practice, a substantial regime of specific speed is reserved exclusively for Francis turbines. No similar situation is found with compressible fluids, where axial turbines are used for the entire specific speed range of practical interest. Francis turbines consistently achieve efficiencies of 90–94 percent, but their counter parts in compressible fluid machines generally are thought to be inferior to axial turbines in performance. Review of available data indicates that radial inflow turbines with compressible fluids can approach or equal the performance of equivalent hydraulic turbines and that, in the specific speed range to which they are applicable, they can match axial turbine performance. Criteria are given which may be used for determination of the suitability of radial turbines for specific requirements.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

DISCUSSIONS

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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