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RESEARCH PAPERS

J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(1):1-12. doi:10.1115/1.3678471.

An equation is derived that describes the radial variation of circumferential-average flow properties inside of a turbomachine blade row. A physical interpretation is given for each of the several terms in the equation, and the magnitudes of the terms are demonstrated with an example. Annulus taper angle is found to be rather important. The error involved in the conventional axisymmetric (infinite-blade-number) approach is shown to be more related to the loading level, e.g., the lift-coefficient level, than the number of blades. This error is found to be small for the selected example.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(1):13-21. doi:10.1115/1.3678470.

The circulation of the liquid-metal heat-transport fluids used in high-performance, mobile, nuclear power plants requires high-temperature pumps. These pumps must be capable of moderately high efficiency over a very long lifetime and have small size, low weight, and high reliability. As an initial phase of a lithium pump development program and to provide pumps for companion development programs, a 195-gpm pump was designed and successfully developed. Extensive testing of pump components, as well as water and liquid-metal tests of complete pump assemblies, was accomplished to meet the program objectives of high performance and high reliability for the required long operating lifetime. Several successful lithium tests of 10,000-hr duration were accomplished with the lithium development pumps and a pump used in a companion heat-exchanger development program.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(1):22-26. doi:10.1115/1.3678472.

This paper presents and discusses the feasible cycles for supplying low-energy-level steam to the desalting flash evaporators of dual-purpose electric-generation and sea-water conversion plants. Cycles which generate electricity as the primary product and desalted water as the byproduct are compared with cycles which produce water as the predominant product and electricity as the byproduct. Investigations include fossil-fueled steam cycles and nuclear-fueled steam cycles at various pressures and temperatures. Determination of the most feasible cycles for various capacity ranges of water production and electrical generation are presented.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(1):27-30. doi:10.1115/1.3678473.

An experimental study of an electric arc in crossed convective and magnetic fields has been made. An electric arc was established across a rectangular test section through which argon gas was flowing at approximately atmospheric pressure and velocities up to 100 m/sec. Magnetic field strengths up to 3 webers/m2 , oriented so that the Lorentz force opposed the convective force on the arc, were applied perpendicular to both the arc and the direction of the argon gas flow. The test apparatus and the procedure used to obtain the experimental relationship between the velocity of the argon flow and the balancing magnetic field are described. An analysis which assumed the magnetically balanced arc to be a gaseous cylinder positioned between the electrodes and with a diameter varying directly as the arc current satisfactorily explained the observed dependence of the balancing magnetic field on the gas velocity.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(1):31-39. doi:10.1115/1.3678474.

The paper reviews the methods available for solution of unsteady-flow problems and describes an approximate method which is suitable for numerical calculation on a digital computer. Results of calculations made by this method assuming homentropic, one-dimensional flow are compared with measured pressure versus crank-angle diagrams in the exhaust system of turbocharged two-stroke engines. It is considered that the results achieved are sufficiently accurate to be of use to the design or development engineer.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(1):40-44. doi:10.1115/1.3678475.

In a cyclone system of combustion or gasification with molten-slag removal a large proportion of the coal is thrown to the slag-coated cyclone walls before it has time to burn. The welting properties of coal-ash slag on devolatilized coal, the evolution of gases from molten slag when in contact with coal particles, and the effect of mineral matter on combustion of coal have been investigated briefly using a heating microscope. Coal-ash slag does not wet coal or coal residues, thus combustion of the coal particles on the surface of molten slag is not retarded. Evolution of gases lakes place from the slag (a) on its initial melting with release of sulfur oxides, and above 1400 C where carbon monoxide is given off when the slag is in contact with coal. The latter is explained in terms of the formation of iron carbide at the slug/carbon interface, the carbide then diffuses into the slag where it reads with silica.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(1):45-48. doi:10.1115/1.3678476.

One limit on the output of a highly rated supercharged diesel engine is the thermal loading imposed by combustion on the walls of the combustion chamber; that is, on the piston, cylinder head, valves, and liner wall. The test readings usually available, whether on works test or in the field are not sufficient for any direct comparison of thermal loading for engines of the same type operating under different site conditions, at different loads and/or with different turbocharger matches. Various factors involved in thermal loading owing to combustion are assessed by cycle and heat-transfer calculations using a digital computer. An approximate formula is derived, for one type of engine, that enables a rapid comparison to be made using the normally available test information. Experimental values for piston temperature obtained by thermocouple measurement on engines in development tests are plotted against the “heat loading factor” obtained from this formula. It is concluded that the formula provides a useful guide for use during development and for nonstandard conditions in service generally.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(1):49-60. doi:10.1115/1.3678477.

Two simple analyses are developed to predict losses in centrifugal compressor (or pump) vaneless diffusers: (a) One-dimensional, axisymmetric friction loss and (b) sudden-expansion mixing to account for losses in the diffuser caused by wakes of separated impeller blades. It is shown that these theories may be substituted for the more complex theory of Dean and Senoo [5]. Some experimental data are included to show the validity of the friction-loss analysis. Finally, the utility of the analyses in design is demonstrated.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(1):63-66. doi:10.1115/1.3678480.
Abstract
Topics: Steam
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(1):67-72. doi:10.1115/1.3678481.

Experimentally based loss coefficients for typical globe valves and for associated piping systems are first determined according to an analytical method previously given. The series-combining characteristics of these separate loss coefficients are then studied, and general conclusions are drawn from these specific results. For a particular system, loss coefficients are also determined by the usual Darcy equations (which omit certain acceleration effects) to note the degree of approximation made both in the magnitude of the separate loss coefficients and in the series combination of these loss coefficients.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(1):73-81. doi:10.1115/1.3678482.

In this paper, we examine losses associated with compressible and constant-density fluids flowing across abrupt area changes in flow passages. The bases of the conventional constant-density loss coefficients for abrupt enlargements and contractions are first reviewed. A loss parameter based directly on the drop in total pressure is next introduced. Various compressible-flow solutions are then considered. Results are given of new experiments run with air and water flowing across abrupt area changes. The total-pressure-loss parameter is shown to have greater utility and validity than the usual loss coefficient for both compressible and constant-density flows.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(1):82-104. doi:10.1115/1.3678483.

The paper presents a brief account of the experimental material and of the empirical correlations which allowed the Sixth International Conference on the Properties of Steam to recommend values for the transport properties of water substance over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Skeleton tables for dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity and Prandtl number are presented together with the recommended tolerances.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

DISCUSSIONS

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