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RESEARCH PAPERS

J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(3):203-208. doi:10.1115/1.3678505.

This paper contains a review of literature, field experience, and test data concerning control of fouling by chlorination and temperature and the effects of water treatments on metallic corrosion.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(3):209-214. doi:10.1115/1.3678506.

This paper presents operating and maintenance data on eighteen reversible pump-turbines in six different plants. Starting and stopping times and procedures for both pumping and generating cycles are detailed for most of the units. Operating records at one of the plants indicate a combined overall efficiency of 68.59 percent and an estimated combined pump-turbine unit efficiency of 74 percent. Cavitation and other maintenance problems for all the units are discussed in detail.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(3):216-220. doi:10.1115/1.3678509.

This paper presents operating and maintenance data on 11 reversible pump-turbines in Brazil, one of which has been in service for 25 years. Actual hours of pumping and generating operation are given. While a number of mechanical difficulties were encountered, the principal maintenance problem seemed to be erosion due to cavitation, and due to sand and sewage in the water. However, none of the problems encountered was insurmountable, and all the units have given many years of satisfactory service.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(3):221-231. doi:10.1115/1.3678510.

Spectacular successes in space for helioelectric systems using silicon solar batteries and a gradual emergence into economic significance of heliothermal processes on earth are the outstanding achievements which are discussed in this fourth biennial Progress Report. Solar batteries, still far too expensive for any but the most specialized applications here on earth, have become the standard sources of power for satellites and space probes. In Japan, Africa, Australia, Israel, and many of the Mediterranean nations, solar water heaters are now competitive with electric and fuel-burning heaters, while solar stills capable of supplying drinking water for entire towns are now being built on many Greek islands. Some progress is reported for mechanical power systems, but the goal of a simple, low-cost replacement for primitive muscle-powered pumps has not yet been achieved. Because of the importance of the space program to the nation’s economy, this report deals at some length with satellite power problems. Life-support systems based on solar energy will soon be equally important, since algae culture for oxygen recovery and solar still techniques for water regeneration are being studied for use in the lengthy space missions which are now being contemplated.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(3):232-239. doi:10.1115/1.3678511.

This is the first progress report from an investigation being performed under the sponsorship of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers with joint financial support by the Edison Electric Institute, industry, and others concerned with the operation of high-pressure boilers.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(3):243-250. doi:10.1115/1.3678513.

This paper covers the latest applications of an electric hydraulic governor control for industrial-commercial gas turbine use. Gas turbines are now being used for mechanical loads, electrical power generation, and ship propulsion. Many of these applications require some degree of automatic operation and operation with other types of prime movers. The electric governor has aided this new concept in gas turbine application. Several typical installations are discussed, including both industrial and commercial use.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(3):251-261. doi:10.1115/1.3678514.

This paper reviews recent trends in the United States in the aerodynamic design of axial-flow compressor components. A summary of design procedures used prior to 1955 is followed by discussion of subsequent improvements in the flow model, the velocity-diagram selection problem and methods for the selection or design of optimum blading. Recent investigations concerned with off-design performance, Reynolds number, scale and blade aspect ratio, and the influence that these investigations have had on design technique are considered. In conclusion, some important current problems in the design of axial-flow compressors are outlined.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(3):262-276. doi:10.1115/1.3678515.

The paper deals with the theoretical analysis and experimental verification of a periodic wave phenomenon occurring in running turbine stages, which until now was not recognized. This wave phenomenon can be responsible for failure of turbine blades and for loss in efficiency of turbomachines. Being periodic, it can produce a blade vibration stimulus which, in general, does not have an integral number of cycles per revolution. It consists of concentrated pressure waves (pressure pulses) which, when the conditions are favorable, are generated on the leading edges of the moving turbine blades, propagate toward the suction sides of the nozzles, are reflected back toward the turbine wheel, collide with the leading edges of the turbine blades, and are again reflected toward the nozzles. For a given turbine stage, depending on the ratio of the number of nozzles to the number of blades, on the edge-to-edge distance between the nozzles and the blades, on the nozzle angle and shape, and on the Mach number of the flow, there exist certain speed ranges (or, in the constant-speed turbines having variable inlet conditions to the stage, certain speed ratio, W/V0 , ranges) in which these waves may exist. The equations derived in this paper indicate that the ratio of the number of nozzles to the number of blades should become an important new parameter in the design of turbine stages free of the wave-produced vibration stimulus at the natural frequency of the blades. A comparison is made of the blade stimulus frequencies predicted by the method described in this paper and of the stimulus frequencies measured by the NACA on a J47 turbojet engine. Very good agreement exists between the observed and predicted stimulus frequencies. A direct observation of the reflecting waves (pressure pulses), made on a water-table model of a turbine stage, is also reported in this paper.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

DISCUSSIONS

J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(3):285-286. doi:10.1115/1.3678533.
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Abstract
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1966;88(3):286. doi:10.1115/1.3678534.
FREE TO VIEW
Abstract
Topics: Slags , Coal

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