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RESEARCH PAPERS

J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):97-104. doi:10.1115/1.3609173.

Research on pumps, particularly those for transporting cryogenic fluids, is very expensive. Rocketdyne has tested pumps with air as the working fluid and has found that a very good correlation exists between air test data and liquid test data. This paper gives a description of the air rigs used by Rocketdyne and compares the data taken in air with data taken in water, LOX, RP-1, and liquid hydrogen. Also presented is the effect of tip clearance on the head of an axial-flow pump as determined from air tests.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):106-110. doi:10.1115/1.3609143.

A one-dimensional analysis of air-lift pump performance in shallow water has been developed which includes the effects of friction and slip between the gas and the liquid. The theory predicts the performance characteristics of these devices successfully, and explains the empirical design rules recommended in earlier publications.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):119-127. doi:10.1115/1.3609146.

A thin airfoil theory is developed for airfoils spanning a slowly diverging or converging channel, the motivation being to predict, theoretically, the effect of varying axial velocity on the cascade performance of axial flow compressor rows.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):129-139. doi:10.1115/1.3609149.

The general formula for estimating the efficiency of a prototype pump from tests of a geometrically similar model is derived. A selection of formulas for pumps is presented, and the more recent literature is discussed briefly.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):149-156. doi:10.1115/1.3609154.

The influence of variations in flow Reynolds number on the performance of axial compressors has been studied (changes in Reynolds number being, for the most part, achieved by changes in the inlet total pressure at or near the design speed). The measured results, so achieved, have been correlated to show how the main compressor performance parameters vary with Reynolds number. Reference has been made to cascade data to assist in choosing the form of the correlation, which is essentially empirical. A good correlation of the measured performance changes on component tests has been obtained. The method described, therefore, appears to be satisfactory for predicting trends for project assessments and avoids considering the detailed flow changes that occur within the machine as the Reynolds number is varied.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):157-162. doi:10.1115/1.3609155.

A study of the effect of secondary fluid injection through single nontangential slots on the surface heat transfer in regions near the injection site is presented. The nondimensional parameters governing the heat transfer are obtained from the pertinent differential equations, and experimental results were obtained which cover the range of interest of these parameters for many situations encountered in film cooling applications. The experimental heat transfer rates were obtained from a novel transient test facility, and are presented as ratios of the heat transfer obtained with film injection to the heat transfer obtained with only the single mainstream.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):164-170. doi:10.1115/1.3609158.

A mathematical model was developed to estimate the dispersion and deposition of a contaminated flow. The model, which is independent of the nature of the contaminate source, is based on an analogy between the kinetic theory of gases and real turbulent flows. The average contamination concentration and deposition rate to the flow boundary as a function of the distance downwind of a reference point are given by calculations based on the model. Assumptions and limitations of the model and their significance are discussed. The results of calculations using the model are qualitatively supported by available experimental data. The model is applicable to radioactive and nonradioactive air pollutants.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):171-176. doi:10.1115/1.3609159.

An estimate of the limit pressure for cylindrical nozzles in cylindrical shells is derived from an upper bound analysis based on an assumed velocity distribution. The analysis is restricted to nozzle/shell diameter ratios of 1/2 or less. Comparisons with other theoretical approaches and the results of a single experiment are shown. Design graphs based on the analysis have been prepared to indicate the amount of nozzle or shell thickening required to make the limit pressure of the nozzle-cylinder structure approximately equal to the yield pressure of the imperforated cylinder.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):177-185. doi:10.1115/1.3609160.

The elastic behavior of a long cylinder subjected to equilibrated radial loads is considered. The problem is formulated by the use of shell theory equations. Although numerical results are available for simply supported cylinders, these results do not apply to long cylinders. The simply supported results were calculated, by Bijlaard, on the basis of equations formulated by Timoshenko and the use of a double Fourier series. The Bijlaard work uses some assumptions which limit the length of the cylinder. In the current work, the more complete equations derived by Flügge and by Biezeno and Grammel are used as transformed by Kempner with the added simplification that the square of the thickness to mean radius ratio is negligible as compared to unity. Solutions for equal and opposite balanced uniformly distributed radial line loads of an any angle are obtained. The solution is carried out by means of a Fourier integral, Fourier series product. All the results are given by a single expression with tabulated coefficients. The infinite cylinder stress and deflection results are presented in graphical form for the parameters of axial position, circumferential position, angle of loading, and mean radius to thickness ratio of the cylinder. The results were checked with axisymmetric thin shell theory.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):186-192. doi:10.1115/1.3609161.

A new method for predicting pulverizer grinding element wear has been developed. This paper describes a laboratory model, ball-and-race, grinding machine, and a radioactive tracer technique used to determine the relative abrasiveness of solid fuels. A procedure for determination of the quartz content of coals was developed, and its relationship to abrasiveness is discussed. Results of testing the abrasiveness of numerous coals and some materials other than coal are presented. A comparison of laboratory abrasion results with actual field wear data is given. Included is a method of application of the experimental wear data to design considerations for new units and also in anticipating wear rates of milling equipment in use.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):193-198. doi:10.1115/1.3609162.

Three experimental approaches gave significant information on high-temperature fireside corrosion: 1 Sodium and potassium chlorides, injected through a gas flame, were deposited as such and then converted to sulfates on an iron surface. 2 Samples of mixed alkali and iron sulfates first showed decomposition and then formed melts at temperatures as low as 1070 deg F. This temperature is within the range that might be expected for fireside surface temperatures on superheater and reheater tubes of large steam generators. 3 Alkali metal chlorides and sulfates, in partial coverage of metal disks and in a flue gas atmosphere, formed fused deposits at temperatures as low as 900 deg F. Complex alkali iron sulfates may cause corrosion either by direct electrolytic corrosion or by altering the normally protective iron oxide scale so that the metal is exposed to direct oxidative corrosion.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):199-202. doi:10.1115/1.3609163.

In the process of drafting a Performance Test Code for Nuclear Reactor Fuel, a question has arisen as to whether the present state of knowledge and experience will permit the writing of a useful code at this time. This paper summarizes the information currently available, states what can be accomplished by the type of code which can be written now, and recommends that the code be written, incorporating information currently available for immediate use and providing a framework for the addition of further information as it becomes available.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):205-212. doi:10.1115/1.3609171.

The variability of municipal refuse can have a marked effect on the performance of an incinerator during test, as compared to design expectations. A computer program has been developed which can assess this variability in terms of its effect on incinerator design parameters, such as gas, air, and quench water flows and temperatures. The results of calculations for several refuse compositions in the range of 4000 to 8000 Btu/lb (HHV) are presented in the form of tables and graphs and their significance with respect to incinerator design and testing is discussed. Tentative plans for further work involving influence coefficients and correction factors are outlined.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

DISCUSSIONS

J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):104. doi:10.1115/1.3609140.
FREE TO VIEW
Abstract
Topics: Pumps , Testing
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):104. doi:10.1115/1.3609141.
FREE TO VIEW
Abstract
Topics: Pumps , Testing
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):104-105. doi:10.1115/1.3609142.
FREE TO VIEW
Abstract
Topics: Pumps , Testing

TECHNICAL BRIEFS

J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):140-142. doi:10.1115/1.3609150.
Abstract
Topics: Fans , Pumps , Testing
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):142-143. doi:10.1115/1.3609151.
Abstract
Topics: Compressors , Pumps
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):144-145. doi:10.1115/1.3609152.
Abstract
Topics: Compressors , Pumps
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1968;90(2):145-148. doi:10.1115/1.3609153.

To explore the feasibility of establishing pump performance in air, two different designs were tested over the same range of shaft speed and flow rate in both water and air. The larger unit of 3000-gpm capacity was of unshrouded design, whereas the smaller, 195-gpm capacity pump was fabricated with a full tip shroud on the impeller. Although similar trends in performance were observed for each pump tested in air and water, some dissimilarities were observed. In particular, the head rise characteristic curves for both pumps were noticeably higher in air than in water. This is contrary to trends predicted by Reynolds number effects and is apparently due to significant difference in the impeller tip leakage flows when pumping liquid or gas.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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