J. Eng. Power. 1969;91(1):i. doi:10.1115/1.3574678.
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster


J. Eng. Power. 1969;91(1):1-12. doi:10.1115/1.3574668.

The status of photovoltaic power technology is reviewed primarily from the viewpoint of current and future applications of the technology to the exploration and utilization of space. The photovoltaic solar cell has been the electric power workhorse throughout the first decade of the space age. The technology has shown steady improvement in reliability, increased efficiency, reduced cost, increased power per unit of hardware weight and ability to withstand extremes of the space environment. New developments are underway to increase solar cell and array size, to reduce stowage volume during boosting into orbit and to improve resistance to space radiation and thermal cycling. Silicon cell electrical contacts and interconnections, low energy proton damage to small exposed cell areas and instability of CdS thin film solar cells are examples of problems receiving attention at this time. The ongoing development of large, 2500–3000 ft2 , solar cell arrays to power the planned Apollo Applications Telescope/Workshop Cluster demonstrates the growing confidence in the ability of photovoltaic power to handle space missions of the future. As photovoltaic technology advances and economic conditions change, the solar cell may well find large scale terrestrial markets.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1969;91(1):13-20. doi:10.1115/1.3574667.

A summary of the thermodynamic design limits for pressure suppression containments for nuclear reactors is presented. Those parameters which must adhere to tested values are tabulated and discussed. An analytical model is described and is shown to accurately predict the existing test data. A graphical technique for predicting the transient peak containment pressure, based on the model, is presented for use in containment design.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1969;91(1):21-30. doi:10.1115/1.3574669.
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1969;91(1):31-36. doi:10.1115/1.3574670.

This paper is intended for the designer of rotating turbomachinery who is concerned with the fluctuating forces generated in a turbomachine. The analysis presented is a quasi-steady analysis and its use is justified by a recent paper by Horlock. This analysis indicates that a time-dependent analysis and a quasi-steady analysis for the minimization of fluctuating lift on an isolated airfoil requires identical airfoil geometries. Assuming this agreement holds for a cascade of airfoils, this paper presents the cascade geometry required to minimize fluctuating lift as predicted by the quasi-steady analysis.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1969;91(1):37-46. doi:10.1115/1.3574671.

A novel, low-cost diffuser based upon discrete pipe drillings has been developed for high-performance centrifugal compressors. These discrete drillings are arranged in symmetrical array to mutually intersect in a radial plane so that a gradual transition from the open vaneless space at rotor tip to the individual throats of each pipe is implicitly defined. To draw a comparison, alternate cambered-vane and flat-plate diffusers were defined using the best available yet practical thinking. With a nominal 5:1 stage pressure ratio, rotor, 81.8 percent efficiency was obtained with the “pipe” diffuser at 5.42 pressure ratio. This efficiency level exceeded the best cambered-vane and flat-plate performance by 6.8 and 8.8 percent, respectively. Further testing with a second rotor yielded 81.3 percent efficiency at 6:1 pressure ratio for the pipe diffuser and 73 percent efficiency at 6:1 for the cambered-vane diffuser.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1969;91(1):48-52. doi:10.1115/1.3574675.

The effect of longitudinal combustion-driven oscillations on convective heat transfer rates was studied using a tubular, propane-fired combustor which resonated as a quarter-wavelength organ pipe at a frequency of 100 cps. The combustor was provided with damping tubes of variable length which enabled the amplitude of the oscillations to be varied, to the extent of damping them out completely. Heat transfer coefficients were measured with and without the presence of combustion-driven oscillations. It was found that heat transfer coefficients were highest at a position of maximum velocity amplitude, where improvements of over 100 percent were obtained. Satisfactory prediction of the effects of the oscillations was obtained by using the quasisteady-state theory.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1969;91(1):53-61. doi:10.1115/1.3574676.

Vapor bubble rise forms the basis for a theoretical study of liquid/vapor action in a saturated system during blowdown. Methods are developed and demonstrated for predicting time and space dependent mixture properties. Graphs are presented for estimating the time-dependent mixture level during steam, water, and mixture blowdowns from 1000 psia. Theoretical mixture levels are compared with vapor blowdown experiments. Although calculations strongly depend upon bubble rise velocity in the liquid, reasonable agreement with data is shown.

Topics: Vapors , Vessels , Bubbles , Steam , Water
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1969;91(1):62-68. doi:10.1115/1.3574677.

A summary of an extensive program of experimental and analytical work leading to a procedure for obtaining optimized performance of water jet-pump systems is presented. The procedure is extended to include systems involving n , series-staged ejector components operating in an optimal manner as a complete pump, pipeline, ejector unit. The theoretical, limiting performance of ejectors is established and several examples involving different design situations are shown.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster


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