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RESEARCH PAPERS

J. Eng. Power. 1970;92(2):95-102. doi:10.1115/1.3445342.

A theoretical evaluation of the heat and mass transfer interchange in an air-inflated solar still has been studied. Experimental verification tests have been carried out and the results compared with theoretical predictions. The percentage of unaccounted heat losses on the overall balance was under three percent for most tests. Continued modification of the theory is necessary in order to account for variations in some of the internal balances.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1970;92(2):103-106. doi:10.1115/1.3445311.

“Full range” automation control of engine prime movers makes possible the direct conversion of primary fuel sources of liquid or gaseous types to prime mover power with the labor savings advantages of unattended automated operation. This paper outlines the development of the “full range” automation program control with related “slave” control devices as required for the overall automated system, and reviews some requirements for a successful engine automation program.

Topics: Engines , Fuels
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1970;92(2):107-111. doi:10.1115/1.3445314.

Sodium vapor deposition is acknowledged to be a potential problem in several activities associated with Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs). Attempts were made to predict sodium evaporation rates using the empirical expression Nu = 0.643 (GrSc)0.25 developed for the evaporation of water. Small scale experiments were performed which indicate the general validity of this expression for sodium evaporation. The experiments also demonstrated that deposition of sodium within inert gas filled enclosures can be substantially reduced by circulating and filtering the atmosphere of the enclosure.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1970;92(2):113-121. doi:10.1115/1.3445317.

An investigation was made of the reaction between SO2 and limestone and dolomite particles in flue gas. Reaction data were generated by exposing the particles to flue gas in a dispersed-phase reactor that simulates localized boiler-furnace conditions. Variables included in the study were residence time, temperature, particle size, SO2 concentration, and chemical state of the stone. A model is hypothesized for the SO2 - particle reaction that is consistent with the experimental data. The hypothesis states that the initial reaction products are sulfites, and that as the particle temperature rises above about 1400 deg F, SO2 is lost by thermal decomposition of the sulfite. Concurrently the sulfite can oxidize and/or disproportionate to form sulfate.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1970;92(2):123-134. doi:10.1115/1.3445322.
Abstract
Topics: Steam
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1970;92(2):135-148. doi:10.1115/1.3445325.

Electrostatic probes for indicating instantaneous flow rate of pulverized coal suspension in a pipe were devised and tested. Experiments were performed on flow systems consisting of 2 and 5-in-ID pipes with mass flow ratios up to 0.66 lb of coal/lb of air at up to 115 fps air velocity. Calibrations were made with a differential isokinetic sampling technique. With accurate control of probe potential, consistent indication of electrostatic ball probes (1/4 to 1/2 -in. dia) was at the 10−7 amp level and at 10−8 amp level with cylindrical probes (0.2-in. ID). Accuracy within 1 percent was demonstrated to be feasible. Since the probe output is an electrical signal, this device makes integrated control system including the coal line feasible. Further, instantaneous and accurate fuel adjustment into furnaces facilitates air-pollution control.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1970;92(2):150-156. doi:10.1115/1.3445328.

A coordinated program is described for developing information needed for designing a condenser cooling water system for a nuclear power plant located on a large estuary to meet State water quality standards and minimize any adverse effects on aquatic life. The paper discusses estuarine conditions pertinent to the design of the intake and discharge structures, the heat assimilative capacity of the estuary, application of the momentum jet theory to the condenser cooling water discharges, and hydraulic model investigations to determine mixing and dispersion patterns.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1970;92(2):157-165. doi:10.1115/1.3445329.

Pertinent literature is reviewed and experimental data on the combustion roar of turbulent, natural-gas, diffusion flames are presented. These data were obtained on two experimental burner rigs, one that consisted of two impinging fuel jets, and one that consisted of eight almost impinging fuel jets. Variables considered include the effect of firing rate up to several hundred thousand btu/hr, spud size, spud spacing and orientation, on both overall noise level and noise spectrum. The data are compared to similar observations from industrial combustors. Some speculations as to the specific source of the combustion roar are made.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1970;92(2):166-172. doi:10.1115/1.3445330.

The Zero Power Plutonium Reactor (ZPPR) is a fast experimental reactor that operates at very low power levels and is used to simulate proposed fast power plutonium reactors in the 1000-MW range. The reactor is built on two large tables, one stationary and one movable, with numerous roller bearings on the underside for ease of travel. Half of the reactor is built on each table, and then the tables are brought together before the reactor can go critical. The tables are each designed to support at least 120 tons of fuel and structural material. Load tests were conducted to prove the system and to determine deflections in the foundation and runways. Many safety devices are built into the table drive system, such as an electric feed-rail system that disconnects the power supply to the drive motor if a relay fails, three speeds of table closing to control reactivity-addition rates, and two independent table-separation systems. Fuel control rods are used for reactivity changes; fuel and poison safety rods are used for shutdown control. Core material is loaded into 2 × 2 × 23-in. drawers, and the drawers are slid into matrix tubes stacked 10 feet high on the tables. Matrix tubes and drawers and the tables were aligned to obtain a minimum gap at the interface.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1970;92(2):173-181. doi:10.1115/1.3445332.

Mathematical model and computer programs have been developed for the analysis of the economic performance of a terrestrial solar power system using heat engines. Various combinations of cycle, collector, engine, storage system, and sink have been studied and the influence of design parameters on power costs examined for both the steady and unsteady state cases. Typical minimum power costs under central Australian conditions for units of 12 kw capacity at current levels of materials and labor costs range from 7 to 47 U. S. cents per kwh, according to the specific design of installation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1970;92(2):182-187. doi:10.1115/1.3445333.

An analysis of the effects of pressure drop in the heat-exchange components of a Stirling cycle has been made and successfully applied to an experimental refrigerator. Data are presented for the indicated work per cycle for each cylinder of the machine. Two successive approximations to the real cycle are used. The first approximation is a Stirling cycle with two adiabatic cylinders and is used to compute the mass flow rates at each location. The second approximation uses these flow rates to obtain the pressure-drop losses in the heat-exchange components. The correlation between measured and calculated pressure-drop losses and individual cylinder work substantiates the validity of the analysis.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1970;92(2):189-197. doi:10.1115/1.3445337.

A dynamic engine model and measurement technique have been developed to study induction air swirl in the cylinder of a 4-stroke-cycle engine. Fabrication of the cylinder and piston crown of the model from transparent plastic permitted flow visualization. Local mean flow directions were determined qualitatively using a tuft grid. Paddle wheels were used to determine the gross swirl characteristics of the flow. A single sensor hot wire anemometer placed in three orientations was used to measure the three orthogonal components of local mean velocity. An error analysis indicated that the technique gives results accurate within ±20 percent. The methods developed allow measurements under actual dynamic conditions of the gross swirl characteristics of different flows, as well as the detailed velocity fields at any time during the intake stroke. Sample results are presented to illustrate the application of the methods.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1970;92(2):198-205. doi:10.1115/1.3445338.

A number of advanced blade concepts to efficiently increase turbine blade loading are being experimentally investigated. Tests made with a single-stage turbine rig have shown two of the advanced blade designs (i.e., the tandem blade and jet-flap blade) to be potentially promising. The design of these two blades and a base plain blade, together with a comparison of the test results, are presented. All three blades were designed to the same velocity diagrams. The design diagrams are based on free-vortex flow and have a significant amount of flow deceleration across the rotor hub. Test results of the three rotor configurations, obtained with the same stator assembly, are presented. The results include turbine airflow, efficiency, and reaction characteristics along with rotor exit surveys.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

DISCUSSIONS

J. Eng. Power. 1970;92(2):106. doi:10.1115/1.3445312.
FREE TO VIEW
Abstract
Topics: Engines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Power. 1970;92(2):106. doi:10.1115/1.3445313.
FREE TO VIEW
Abstract
Topics: Engines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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