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### Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Ceramics

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):041301-041301-9. doi:10.1115/1.3077662.

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to reduce the actual working temperature of the high pressure turbine blade metal surface. Knowing the temperature of the surface of the TBC and at the interface between the bondcoat and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) under realistic conditions is highly desirable. As the major life-controlling factors for TBC systems are thermally activated, therefore linked with temperature, this would provide useful data for a better understanding of these phenomena and to assess the remaining lifetime of the TBC. This knowledge could also enable the design of advanced cooling strategies in the most efficient way using minimum amount of air. The integration of an on-line temperature detection system would enable the full potential of TBCs to be realized due to improved precision in temperature measurement and early warning of degradation. This, in turn, will increase fuel efficiency and reduce $CO2$ emissions. The concept of a thermal-sensing TBC was first introduced by Choy, Feist, and Heyes (1998, “Thermal Barrier Coating With Thermoluminescent Indicator Material Embedded Therein,” U.S. Patent U.S. 6974641 (B1)). The TBC is locally modified so it acts as a thermographic phosphor. Phosphors are an innovative way of remotely measuring temperatures and also other physical properties at different depths in the coating using photo stimulated phosphorescence (Allison and Gillies, 1997, “Remote Thermometry With Thermographic Phosphors: Instrumentation and Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 68(7), pp. 2615–2650). In this study the temperature dependence of several rare earth doped EB-PVD coatings will be compared. Details of the measurements, the influence of aging, the composition, and the fabrication of the sensing TBC will be discussed in this paper. The coatings proved to be stable and have shown excellent luminescence properties. Temperature detection at ultrahigh temperatures above $1300°C$ is presented using new types of EB-PVD TBC ceramic compositions. Multilayer sensing TBCs will be presented, which enable the detection of temperatures below and on the surface of the TBC simultaneously.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

### Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):041501-041501-8. doi:10.1115/1.3043807.

A can type combustor with a rotating casing for an innovative micro gas turbine has been modeled, and the combustion characteristics were investigated. The simulations were performed using commercial code STAR-CD , in which a three-dimensional compressible $k-ε$ turbulent flow model and a one-step overall chemical reaction between methane/air were used. The results include the detailed flame structure at different rotation speeds of outside casing, ranging from stationary to the maximum speed of 58,000 rpm of the design point. The airflows are baffled when entering the combustor through the linear holes due to the centrifugal force caused by the rotating casing, and the inlet flow angle is inclined. When the rotation is in the opposite direction of the swirling flows driven by the designed swirler, a shorter but broader recirculation zone and a concave shape flame are found at a higher rotating speed. At maximum rotating speed, the swirling flows are dominated by the rotating flows caused by the casing, especially downstream of the combustor. The combustor performance was also analyzed, indicating a higher combustion efficiency and higher exit temperature when the casing rotates, which benefits the performance of the gas turbine, but the cooling and possible hot spots for turbines are the primary concerns.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):041502-041502-17. doi:10.1115/1.3028234.

In 1999, as the only inland petroleum refinery in South Africa was reaching capacity, Sasol gained approval of a semisynthetic jet fuel (SSJF) for civil aviation to augment production and meet the growing demand for jet fuel at the airport in Johannesburg. Prior to this, all jet fuel had to be refined from petroleum sources. SSJF consists of up to 50% of an isoparaffinic kerosene produced from coal using Fischer–Tropsch processes. The production of SSJF remains vulnerable to the production capacity of conventional jet fuel, however. To ensure supply, Sasol has proposed producing a fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF) using synthetic kerosene streams that contain aromatics and satisfy all the property requirements of international specifications for jet fuel. Being fully synthetic, it was necessary to demonstrate that the fuel is “fit-for-purpose” as jet fuel, i.e., behaves like conventional jet fuel in all aspects of storage and handling as well as air worthiness and flight safety. Four sample blends were developed, covering the practical range of production. Extensive tests on chemistry and physical properties and characteristics demonstrated that Sasol FSJF will be typical of conventional jet fuel. As a final demonstration, the engine manufacturers requested a series of engine and combustor tests to evaluate combustion characteristics, emissions, engine durability, and performance. The performance of the synthetic test fuel was typical of conventional jet fuel. This paper identifies the tests and presents the results demonstrating that Sasol fully synthetic jet fuel is fit-for-purpose as jet fuel for civilian aviation. Sasol FSJF is the first fully synthetic jet fuel approved for unrestricted use.

Topics: Fuels , Jet fuels , Engines
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

### Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Controls, Diagnostics, and Instrumentation

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):041601-041601-9. doi:10.1115/1.3028565.

Active compressor stability management can play a significant role in the intelligent control of gas turbine engines. The present work utilizes a computer simulation to illustrate the potential operability benefits of compressor stability management when actively controlling a turbofan engine. The simulation, called the modular aeropropulsion system simulation (MAPSS) and developed at NASA Glenn, models the actuation, sensor, controller, and engine dynamics of a twin-spool, low-bypass turbofan engine. The stability management system is built around a previously developed stability measure called the correlation measure. The correlation measure quantifies the repeatability of the pressure signature of a compressor rotor. Earlier work has used laboratory compressor and engine rig data to develop a relationship between a compressor’s stability boundary and its correlation measure. Specifically, correlation measure threshold crossing events increase in magnitude and number as the compressor approaches the limit of stable operation. To simulate the experimentally observed behavior of these events, a stochastic model based on level-crossings of an exponentially distributed pseudorandom process has been implemented in the MAPSS environment. Three different methods of integrating active stability management within the existing engine control architecture have been explored. The results show that significant improvements in the engine emergency response can be obtained while maintaining instability-free compressor operation via any of the methods studied. Two of the active control schemes investigated utilize existing scheduler and controller parameters and require minimal additional control logic for implementation. The third method, while introducing additional logic, emphasizes the need for as well as the benefits of a more integrated stability management system.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

### Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Cycle Innovations

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):041701-041701-10. doi:10.1115/1.3026561.

The steam injected gas turbine (STIG), humid air turbine (HAT), and TOP Humid Air Turbine (TOPHAT) cycles lie at the center of the debate on which humid power cycle will deliver optimal performance when applied to an aeroderivative gas turbine and, indeed, when such cycles will be implemented. Of these humid cycles, it has been claimed that the TOPHAT cycle has the highest efficiency and specific work, followed closely by the HAT, and then the STIG cycle. In this study, the systems have been simulated using consistent thermodynamic and economic models for the components and working fluid properties, allowing a consistent and nonbiased appraisal of these systems. Part I of these two papers focuses purely on the thermodynamic performance and the impact of the system parameters on the performance; Part II will study the economic performance. The three humid power systems and up to ten system parameters are optimized using a multi-objective Tabu Search algorithm, developed in the Cambridge Engineering Design Centre.

Topics: Cycles
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):041702-041702-10. doi:10.1115/1.3026562.

The steam injected gas turbine (STIG), humid air turbine (HAT), and TOP Humid Air Turbine (TOPHAT) cycles lie at the center of the debate on which humid power cycle will deliver optimal performance when applied to an aeroderivative gas turbine and, indeed, when such cycles will be implemented. Of these humid cycles, it has been claimed that the TOPHAT cycle has the highest efficiency and specific work, followed closely by the HAT and then the STIG cycle. In this study, the systems have been simulated using consistent thermodynamic and economic models for the components and working fluid properties, allowing a consistent and nonbiased appraisal of these systems. Part I of these two papers focused on the thermodynamic performance and the impact of the system parameters on the performance, Part II studies the economic performance of these cycles. The three humid power systems and up to ten system parameters are optimized using a multi-objective Tabu Search algorithm, developed in the Cambridge Engineering Design Centre.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

### Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Structures and Dynamics

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):042501-042501-8. doi:10.1115/1.3077660.

This paper presents the outcomes of computational mechanics applied in the root-cause investigation on hot section failure of a 25 MW gas turbo generator in the domestic power plant after 2228 start-stops and 52,586 h operation. The failure includes the complete damage of the first and the second stage of nozzles, blades, seals, shroud segments, and also a peripheral damage on the disk of first stage. Several reported cases from the different power plants with similar events evidenced that the failure is a serious common type in the mentioned gas turbine engine. A previous study on complete metallurgical analysis of disk, moving blades, and lock-pins, was done by Poursaeidi and Mohammadi (2008, “Failure Analysis of Lock-Pin in a Gas Turbine Engine,” Eng. Fail. Anal., 15(7), pp. 847–855), which concluded that the mechanical specification of applied materials had been satisfied. Nevertheless, some problems were found in the fractographic results of lock-pins: the typical fatigue fracture surfaces in the neck of failed lock-pins and frankly localized pitting signs near the head of lock-pin. The lock-pins are kinds of small devices that lock the buckets after inserting them into disk grooves. In this work, a 3D finite element model (FEM) of a blade, a disk, and a lock-pin are made and analyzed by the ANSYS software. The results of the FEM showed a reasonable agreement between the analysis and position of fracture on lock-pins. Also, the results showed that the second vibrational mode of the bucket is a possible cause of failure because in this mode the peak stress occurs on the head of the lock-pin. However, inadequate design and long time service reduced the performance of lock-pins for sustaining a severe hot condition in the first stage of the turbine section.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):042502-042502-10. doi:10.1115/1.3077643.

Palm-sized microturbomachinery have broad potential applications in micropower generation areas, such as air/fuel management systems for various fuel cells, propulsion engine for unmanned micro-air vehicles, power generation turbines for robots, small satellites, etc. This paper introduces design and manufacturing processes of mesoscale foil gas bearings applicable to the microturbomachinery and also presents its performances predicted from nonlinear orbit simulations. X-ray and ultraviolet lithography were explored as promising manufacturing tools of elastic foundations for the mesoscale foil gas bearings. Designed and manufactured mesoscale foil gas bearings have unique design features that precision-machined foil bearings cannot provide, such as easy control of mechanical properties of elastic foundations, a simple assembly process, and easy control of bearing preload through lithographic pattern. The manufactured bearing performance was predicted using a time-domain orbit simulation, and results are presented.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):042503-042503-11. doi:10.1115/1.3077646.

This paper introduces a design and manufacturing of mesoscale flexure pivot tilting pad gas bearing with a diameter of 5 mm and a length of 1–2.5 mm for PowerMEMS (micro electromechanical systems for power generation) applications with power ranges of 100–200 W. Potential applications include power source for unmanned air vehicles, small robots, microgas turbines to be harnessed by very small solid oxide fuel cells, microblowers/compressors for microfuel cells, etc. The design studies involve scaling analysis, time-domain orbit simulations for stability analyses, and frequency-domain modal analyses for prediction of rotor-bearing natural frequencies. Scaling analysis indicates that direct miniaturization of macroscale tilting pad gas bearing can result in a large bearing number, which may render the rotor-bearing system unstable. However, the scaling analysis provides the baseline design from which the final design can be derived considering manufacturing issue. The generalized modal analysis using impedance contours predict damped natural frequencies close to those from orbit simulations, providing high fidelity to the developed numerical methods. It was predicted that the designed mesoscale tilting pad gas bearings would show very stable operation up to a maximum simulated speed of 1,000,000 rpm. The designed mesoscale tilting pad gas bearings were manufactured using X-ray lithography and electroplating.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):042504-042504-7. doi:10.1115/1.2967498.

End seals in squeeze film dampers (SFDs) aid to increase their damping capability while maintaining low lubricant flow rates and reducing the severity of air ingestion. This paper presents measurements of the forced response in a SFD integrating a contacting end seal and with closed flow ports, i.e., no lubricant through flow. The system motion is nonlinear due to the dry-friction interaction at the mechanical seal mating surfaces. Single parameter characterization of the test system would yield an equivalent viscous damping coefficient that is both frequency and motion amplitude dependent. Presently, an identification method suited for nonlinear systems allows determining simultaneously the squeeze film damping and inertia force coefficients and the seal dry-friction force. The identification procedure shows similar (within 10%) force coefficients than those obtained with a more involved two-step procedure that first requires measurements without any lubricant in the test system. The identified SFD damping and inertia force coefficients agree well with model predictions that account for end flow effects at recirculation grooves. The overall test results demonstrate that the nonrotating end seal effectively eliminates side leakage and avoids air ingestion, thus maintaining a consistent damping performance throughout the test frequency range. The nonlinear identification procedure saves time and resources while producing reliable physical parameter estimations.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

### Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):042801-042801-12. doi:10.1115/1.3077661.

Despite the fact that homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) has been demonstrated as a combustion technology feasible for implementation with different fuels in various types of engines, cylinder-to-cylinder variations (CTCVs) in multicylinder HCCI engines remain one of the technical obstacles to overcome. A reduction in CTCV requires further developments in control technology. This study has been carried out with regard to the overall engine parameters, involving geometric differences between individual cylinders, coolant paths through the engine, combustion chamber deposits, and also the differences in the inlet temperature distributions between the cylinders. Experimental investigations on the Jaguar V6 HCCI research engine with negative valve overlapping and cam profile switching show that the differences in the rate of pressure rise between the cylinders can be larger than 1 bar/CA deg and that the load differences can be as high as 5–10%. It has been found that some individual cylinders will approach the misfiring limit far earlier than the others. The complex interaction between a number of parameters makes the control of the multicylinder engine a serious challenge. In order to avoid these differences, an active cylinder balancing strategy will be required. It has been observed that spark assistance and split injection strategy deliver the best control for the cylinder balance. However, spark assistance is restricted to low loads and low engine speeds, while split injection requires a considerable effort to optimize its possible settings. This paper defines the most important parameters influencing cylinder-to-cylinder variations in the HCCI engine and aims to put forward suggestions that can help to minimize the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder variations on the overall engine performance.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):042802-042802-11. doi:10.1115/1.3077647.

The techniques of design of experiments were applied to study the best operational conditions for oxygen-enriched combustion in a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine in order to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions, with minimal deterioration in nitrogen oxide $(NOx)$ emissions, by controlling fuel injection timing, carbon dioxide $(CO2)$ and $O2$ volume fractions in intake air. The results showed that $CO2$ addition reduced average combustion temperatures and minimized the rate of increase in $NOx$ emissions observed during oxygen-enriched conditions. It was also observed that oxygen enrichment minimized the deterioration in brake-specific fuel consumption and hydrocarbon and PM emissions that occurred at the highest level of $CO2$ addition.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

### Research Papers: Nuclear Power

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):042901-042901-5. doi:10.1115/1.3095805.

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. The results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 64.4% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):042902-042902-8. doi:10.1115/1.3079608.

Pyrometallurgical reprocessing is one of the most promising technologies for the advanced fuel cycle with favorable economic potential and intrinsic proliferation-resistance. The feasibility of pyrometallurgical reprocessing has been studied through many laboratory-scale experiments. Hence the development of the engineering technology necessary for pyrometallurgical reprocessing is a key issue for its industrialization. The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt and liquid cadmium is crucial for pyrometallurgical processing; however, there have been a few transport studies on high-temperature fluids. In this study, a metal transport test rig was installed in an argon glove box with the aim of developing technologies for transporting liquid cadmium at approximately 773 K. The transport of liquid Cd using gravity was controlled by adjusting the valve. The liquid Cd was transported by a suction pump against a 0.93 m head and the transport amount of Cd was well controlled with the Cd amount and the position of the suction tube. The transportation of liquid cadmium at approximately 700 K could be controlled at a rate of $0.5–2.5 dm3/min$ against a 1.6 m head using a centrifugal pump.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):042903-042903-8. doi:10.1115/1.3079610.

The dominant processes in the initialization and propagation of microstructurally short cracks include microstructural features such as crystallographic orientations of grains, grain boundaries, inclusions, voids, material phases, etc. The influence of the microstructural features is expected to vanish with distance from the crack tip. Also, the influence of the nearby microstructural features is expected to be smaller for a long than for a small crack. Finally, a crack of sufficient length can be modeled using classical fracture mechanic methods. In this paper the approach to estimate the crack length with vanishing influence from the microstructural feature is proposed. To achieve this, a model containing a large number of randomly sized, shaped, and oriented grains is employed. The random grain structure is modeled using a Voronoi tessellation. A series of cracks of lengths from about 1 to 7 grain lengths is inserted into the model, extending from a grain at the surface toward the interior of the model. The crack tip opening displacements are estimated and statistically analyzed for a series of random crystallographic orientation sets assigned to the grains adjacent to the crack. Anisotropic elasticity and crystal plasticity constitutive models are employed at the grain size scale. It is shown that the standard deviation of the crack tip opening displacement decreases from about 20% for a short surface crack embedded within a single grain to about 7% for a surface crack extending through seven grains. From the engineering point of view, a crack extending through less than about ten grain sizes is therefore considered to strongly depend on the neighboring microstructural features.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):042904-042904-7. doi:10.1115/1.3095808.

A program for a hydrogen production by using a high temperature nuclear heat has been launched in Korea since 2004. Iodine sulfur (IS) process is one of the promising processes for a hydrogen production because it does not generate carbon dioxide and a massive hydrogen production may be possible. However, the highly corrosive environment of the process is a barrier to its application in the industry. Therefore, corrosion behaviors of various materials were evaluated in sulfuric acid to select appropriate materials compatible with the IS process. The materials used in this work were Ni based alloys, Fe–Si alloys, Ta, Au, Pt, Zr, SiC, and so on. The test environments were boiling $50 wt %$ sulfuric acid without/with HI as an impurity and $98 wt %$ sulfuric acid. The surface morphologies and cross-sectional areas of the corroded materials were examined by using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). From the results of the weight loss and potentiodynamic experiments, it was found that a Si enriched oxide is attributable to a corrosion resistance for materials including Si in boiling $98 wt %$ sulfuric acid. Moreover, the passive Si enriched film thickness increased with the immersion time leading to an enhancement of the corrosion resistance. Corrosion behaviors of the material tested are discussed in terms of the chemical composition of the materials, the corrosion morphology, and the surface layer’s composition.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):042905-042905-4. doi:10.1115/1.3095804.

In this work we have deposited silicon carbide (SiC) at $1300°C$ with the addition of small amounts of propylene. The use of propylene and high concentrations of methyltrichlorosilane $(9 vol %)$ allowed the deposition of superhard SiC coatings (42 GPa). The superhard SiC could result from the presence of a SiC–C solid solution, undetectable by X-ray diffraction but visible by Raman spectroscopy. Another sample obtained by the use of $50 vol %$ Argon, also showed the formation of SiC with good properties. The use of a flat substrate together with the particles showed the importance of carrying out the analysis on actual particles rather than in flat substrates. We show that it is possible to characterize the anisotropy of pyrolytic carbon by Raman spectroscopy.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

### Research Papers: Thermodynamic Properties

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):043101-043101-16. doi:10.1115/1.3028630.

When steam power cycles are modeled, thermodynamic properties as functions of pressure and temperature are required in the critical and supercritical regions (region 3 of IAPWS-IF97). With IAPWS-IF97, such calculations require cumbersome iterative calculations, because temperature and volume are the independent variables in the formulation for this region. In order to reduce the computing time, the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) adopted a set of backward equations for volume as a function of pressure and temperature in region 3. The necessary numerical consistency is achieved by dividing the region into 20 subregions, plus auxiliary subregions near the critical point in which the consistency requirements are relaxed due to the singular behavior at the critical point. In this work, we provide complete documentation of these equations, along with a discussion of their numerical consistency and the savings in computer time. The numerical consistency of these equations should be sufficient for most applications in heat-cycle, boiler, and steam-turbine calculations; if even higher consistency is required, the equations may be used to generate guesses for iterative procedures.

Topics: Equations
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

### Technical Briefs

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. 2009;131(4):044501-044501-7. doi:10.1115/1.3028566.

Gas turbines in integrated gasification combined cycle power plants burn a fuel gas (syngas (SG)) in which the proportions of hydrocarbons, $H2$, CO, water vapor, and minor impurity levels may differ significantly from those in natural gas (NG). Such differences can yield changes in the temperature, pressure, and corrosive species that are experienced by critical components in the hot gas path, with important implications for the design, operation, and reliability of the turbine. A new data structure and computational methodology is presented for the numerical simulation of a turbine thermodynamic cycle, with emphasis on the hot gas path components. The approach used allows efficient handling of turbine components and variable constraints due to fuel changes. Examples are presented for a turbine with four stages, in which the vanes and blades are cooled in an open circuit using air from the appropriate compressor stages. For an imposed maximum metal temperature, values were calculated for the fuel, air, and coolant flow rates and through-wall temperature gradients for cases where the turbine was fired with NG or SG. A NG case conducted to assess the effect of coolant pressure matching between the compressor extraction points and corresponding turbine injection points indicated that this is a feature that must be considered for high combustion temperatures. The first series of SG simulations was conducted using the same inlet mass flow and pressure ratios as those for the NG case. The results showed that higher coolant flow rates and a larger number of cooled turbine rows were needed for the SG case to comply with the imposed temperature constraints. Thus, for that case, the turbine size would be different for SG than for NG. A second series of simulations examined scenarios for maintaining the original turbine configuration (i.e., geometry, diameters, blade heights, angles, and cooling circuit characteristics) used for the SG simulations. In these, the inlet mass flow was varied while keeping constant the pressure ratios and the amount of hot gas passing the first vane of the turbine. The effects of turbine matching between the NG and SG cases were increases—for the SG case of approximately 7% and 13% for total cooling flows and cooling flows for the first-stage vane, respectively. In particular, for the SG case, the vanes in the last stage of the turbine experienced inner wall temperatures that approached the maximum allowable limit.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster