TECHNICAL PAPERS: Internal Combustion Engines

Liquid Fuel Impingement on In-Cylinder Surfaces as a Source of Hydrocarbon Emissions From Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
J. Li, Y. Huang, T. F. Alger, R. D. Matthews, M. J. Hall

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1063

R. H. Stanglmaier, C. E. Roberts

Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78250

W. Dai, R. W. Anderson

Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI 48124

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 123(3), 659-668 (Dec 01, 2000) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1370398 History: Received July 01, 2000; Revised December 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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Directional injection probe used to place liquid fuel on various locations within the combustion chamber
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Engine geometry and wall-wetting locations examined (piston wetting location not illustrated)
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Atmospheric pressure distillation curve for California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline. GESIM predictions for the piston and linear temperatures for this engine and operating conditions are shown for comparison.
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Effects of wall wetting location and injection timing on HC emissions, from Stanglmaier et al. 18. (1000 rpm, 32 kPa MAP, 90°C coolant MBT timing ∼32 CA deg BTDC, 1.5 mg injected).
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Fraction of injected liquid fuel that can be accounted for in the exhaust stream, from Stanglmaier et al. 18. (Same conditions as Fig. 4.)
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Effects of the liquid fuel fraction on HC emissions when the liquid fuel is injected onto the piston compared to port fuel injection of the liquid fuel
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The 1/e time constant from the wide range lambda sensor output for piston wetting with 1.5 mg of Cal. Phase 2 RFG and also with 1.5 mg of n-pentane, and also for port injection of 1.5 mg of Cal. Phase 2 RFG, all at the WWMP with 40°C coolant
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Fast-Spec results for the HC emissions at idle prior to and following injector shutoff
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Relative excess air ratio and relative HC emissions following injector shutoff. Piston wetting with 1.5 mg Cal. Phase 2 RFG.
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Vaporization time for a single liquid drop on a hot surface in quiescent surroundings at one bar, from Xiong and Yuen 31. Initial drop size=0.15 mm, except diesel droplets of 0.19 mm.
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The results of Fig. 10 in terms of the difference between the wall temperature and the boiling point of the fuel (adapted from Xiong and Yuen 31)



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