TECHNICAL PAPERS: Internal Combustion Engines

Main Bearing Friction and Thermal Interaction During the Early Seconds of Cold Engine Operation

[+] Author and Article Information
Paul J. Shayler

Ford Motor Company, Dunton Engineering Centre, Basildon, Essex SS15 6EE, UK

Warren S. Baylis

Mechanical Engineering, School of MMME, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD United Kingdom

Michael Murphy

Ford Motor Company, Mariners Whites Hill Stock, Ingatestone, Essex, CM4 9QD United Kingdom

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 127(1), 197-205 (Feb 09, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1804538 History: Received January 20, 2003; Revised March 12, 2004; Online February 09, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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Shayler, P. J., Burrows, J. A., Tindle, C. R., and Murphy, M., 2001, “Engine Friction Characteristics Under Cold Start Conditions,” Paper No. 2001-ICE-432, ICE Vol. 37-3, 2001 Fall Technical Conference, ASME.
Miura, A., and Shiraishi, K., 1989, “Investigation of Main Bearing Friction in a Diesel Engine,” SAE 890140.
Cameron, A., 1981, Basic Lubrication Theory, 3rd ed. Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester, UK.
Cross,  M. M., 1965, “Rheology of Non-Newtonian Fluids: A New Flow Equation for Pseudo Plastic Systems,” J. Colloid Sci., 20, p. 417.
Taylor,  R. I., 1997, “Engine Friction: The Influence of Lubricant Rheology,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J, J. Eng. Tribol., 211, pp. 233–246.
Sorab, J., Holdeman, H. A., and Chui, G. K., 1993, “Viscosity Prediction for Multigrade Oils,” SAE 932833.
Burrows, J. A., 1998, “An Investigation Into the Cold Start Performance of Automotive Diesel Engines,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Nottingham.


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Experimental apparatus used for crankshaft main bearing study
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Comparison of torque required to motor the crankshaft assembly with and without seals, at 1000 rev/min and starting at −20°C
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Instrumentation of bearing caps, (a) thermocouple positions to measure temperatures through the shell/cap and (b) positions to measure temperature around the oil film circumference
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Temperature variations with time of oil film, shell, cap and block during a typical motored crankshaft friction test from −20°C start
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Temperature variation of the oil film around lower bearing cap circumference, during a motored crankshaft friction test at a speed of 1000 rev/min from a start temperature of −20°C
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Measured friction force versus values from Petroff’s equation. Constant speed tests starting at −20°C. Data covers 200–1000 rev/min, and three base clearance levels.
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Measured friction force versus modified prediction, Eq. (9). Data plotted covers the same tests as Fig. 7.
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Distribution of elements used in the one-dimensional finite difference transient heat conduction model
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Finite difference thermal network
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Comparison of measured and predicted crankshaft main bearing friction force for minimum, mean, and maximum clearance bearing shells at 1000 rev/min
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Comparison of relative conduction and convection heat transfer terms for mean clearance shells, operating at 1000 rev/min
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Illustrations of main bearing shells, (a) shows a standard plain shell and (b) shows a shell with approximately 20% of the original contact area
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Main bearing friction force at crankshaft speeds of 200 rev/min for (upper figure) minimum, (middle) mean, and (lower) maximum bearing clearances
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Main bearing friction force at crankshaft speeds of 1000 rev/min for (upper figure) minimum, (middle) mean, and (lower) maximum bearing clearances
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Measured and predicted effects of shell contact area on friction at 1000 rev/min for (upper figure) minimum, (middle) mean, and (lower) maximum bearing clearances. Predictions for 0% contact are also shown.
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Initial and quasisteady friction characteristics during engine warm-up phase



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