TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Electric Power

Modeling and Simulation of a Gas Turbine Engine for Power Generation

[+] Author and Article Information
Qusai Z. Al-Hamdan

Air Force Engineering Branch,  Royal Jordanian Air Force, Amman, Jordanqusai@go.com.jo

Munzer S. Ebaid

 Head of Scientific Research Department, King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau (KADDB), Amman, Jordan

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 128(2), 302-311 (Apr 27, 2005) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2061287 History: Received February 22, 2004; Revised April 27, 2005

The gas turbine engine is a complex assembly of a variety of components that are designed on the basis of aerothermodynamic laws. The design and operation theories of these individual components are complicated. The complexity of aerothermodynamic analysis makes it impossible to mathematically solve the optimization equations involved in various gas turbine cycles. When gas turbine engines were designed during the last century, the need to evaluate the engines performance at both design point and off design conditions became apparent. Manufacturers and designers of gas turbine engines became aware that some tools were needed to predict the performance of gas turbine engines especially at off design conditions where its performance was significantly affected by the load and the operating conditions. Also it was expected that these tools would help in predicting the performance of individual components, such as compressors, turbines, combustion chambers, etc. At the early stage of gas turbine developments, experimental tests of prototypes of either the whole engine or its main components were the only method available to determine the performance of either the engine or of the components. However, this procedure was not only costly, but also time consuming. Therefore, mathematical modelling using computational techniques were considered to be the most economical solution. The first part of this paper presents a discussion about the gas turbine modeling approach. The second part includes the gas turbine component matching between the compressor and the turbine which can be met by superimposing the turbine performance characteristics on the compressor performance characteristics with suitable transformation of the coordinates. The last part includes the gas turbine computer simulation program and its philosophy. The computer program presented in the current work basically satisfies the matching conditions analytically between the various gas turbine components to produce the equilibrium running line. The computer program used to determine the following: the operating range (envelope) and running line of the matched components, the proximity of the operating points to the compressor surge line, and the proximity of the operating points at the allowable maximum turbine inlet temperature. Most importantly, it can be concluded from the output whether the gas turbine engine is operating in a region of adequate compressor and turbine efficiency. Matching technique proposed in the current work used to develop a computer simulation program, which can be served as a valuable tool for investigating the performance of the gas turbine at off-design conditions. Also, this investigation can help in designing an efficient control system for the gas turbine engine of a particular application including being a part of power generation plant.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Schematic diagram of simple gas turbine engine

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Figure 2

General compressor characteristics (map)

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Figure 3

Turbine Characteristics (Map)

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Figure 4

Compressor turbine matching procedure

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Figure 5

(a) Centrifugal pump in fluid-flow diagram, and (b) Possible information-flow blocks representing pump

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Figure 6

Information flow diagram of a simple gas turbine engine

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Figure 7

Problems with reading compressor maps

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Figure 8

Computer simulation flowchart

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Figure 17

Variation of various temperatures at 42,000rpm

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Figure 18

Variation of torque values at 42,000rpm

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Figure 9

Complete performance characteristics of a centrifugal compressor (3)

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Figure 10

Complete performance characteristics of a radial turbine (3)

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Figure 11

Transformed performance characteristics of centrifugal compressor

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Figure 12

Transformed performance characteristics of radial turbine

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Figure 13

Complete matching characteristics of the gas turbine performance

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Figure 14

Matching characteristics at running line of 42,000rpm

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Figure 15

Variation of thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption at 42,000rpm

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Figure 16

Variation of exhaust flow and temperature at 42,000rpm



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