TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Review Papers in Combustion & Fuels

Advancements in Gas Turbine Fuels From 1943 to 2005

[+] Author and Article Information
Tim Edwards

 AFRL/PRTG Building 490, 1790 Loop Road, North, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7103

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 129(1), 13-20 (Feb 01, 2006) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2364007 History: Received October 01, 2005; Revised February 01, 2006

The first provisional jet fuel specifications were published in 1943 in England (RDE/F/KER/210) and 1944 in the U.S. (AN-F-32a). Jet fuel has undergone many changes in subsequent years, with current specifications for JP-5 and JP-8 for the military in the U.S. and Jet A/Jet A-1 for commercial use worldwide. Jet fuel specifications are subject to constant tension between performance requirements and availability/cost considerations. In this paper we will discuss how jet fuels have evolved over the years from the first engines to current gas turbine engines. Jet fuels derived from nonpetroleum sources will also be discussed.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Topics: Fuels , Gas turbines
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Figure 1

Trends in U. S. aviation fuel consumption

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Figure 2

Carbon number distribution for kerosene fuels and avgas

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Figure 3

Fuel requirements are often painted on aircraft. In this picture from the Nat’l Museum of the Air Force in Dayton, an early jet fighter (the P-80) specifies “JP-1.”

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Figure 4

The F-111F spanned the JP-4 to JP-8 conversion. ASTM-D-1655 Type B (“Jet B”) is the commercial equivalent of JP-4.

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Figure 5

Jet fuel additives. Antistatic additive is also called static dissipater additive (SDA).

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Figure 6

Composition distribution for South African petroleum-derived Jet A-1 (31)

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Figure 7

Composition distribution for isoparaffinic kerosene produced from coal-derived synthesis gas by F-T process (31)

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Figure 8

Missile fuel structures



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