TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Ceramics

Ceramic Matrix Composite Combustor Liners: A Summary of Field Evaluations

[+] Author and Article Information
Mark van Roode, Jeff Price, Josh Kimmel, Naren Miriyala, Don Leroux, Anthony Fahme, Kenneth Smith

 Solar Turbines Incorporated, P. O. Box 85376, San Diego, CA 92186-5376

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 129(1), 21-30 (Mar 01, 2005) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2181182 History: Received October 01, 2004; Revised March 01, 2005

Solar Turbines Incorporated, under U.S. government sponsored programs, has been evaluating ceramic matrix composite combustor liners in test rigs and Solar’s Centaur® 50S gas turbine engines since 1992. The objective is to evaluate and improve the performance and durability of CMCs as high-temperature materials for advanced low emissions combustors. Field testing of CMC combustor liners started in May of 1997 and by the end of 2004, over 67,000 operating hours had been accumulated on SiCSiC and oxide∕oxide CMC liners. NOx and CO emissions have been consistently <15ppmv and <10ppmv, respectively. Maximum test durations of 15,144h and 13,937h have been logged for SiCSiC liners with protective environmental barrier coatings. An oxide∕oxide CMC liner with a Friable Graded Insulation coating has been tested for 12,582h. EBCs significantly improve SiCSiC CMC liner life. The basic three-layer EBC consists of consecutive layers of Si, mullite, and BSAS. The durability of the baseline EBC can be improved by mixing BSAS with mullite in the intermediate coating layer. The efficacy of replacing BSAS with SAS has not been demonstrated yet. Heavy degradation was observed for two-layer Si∕BSAS and Si∕SAS EBCs, indicating that the elimination of the intermediate layer is detrimental to EBC durability. Equivalent performance was observed when the Hi-Nicalon fiber reinforcement was replaced with Tyranno ZM or ZMI fiber. Melt infiltrated SiCSiC CMCs have improved durability compared to SiCSiC CMCs fabricated by Chemical Vapor Infiltration of the matrix, in the absence of an EBC. However, the presence of an EBC results in roughly equivalent service life for MI and CVI CMCs. Results to date indicate that oxide∕oxide CMCs with protective FGI show minor degradation under Centaur® 50S gas turbine engine operating conditions. The results of, and lessons learned from CMC combustor liner engine field testing, conducted through 2004, have been summarized.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Solar’s ceramic combustor liner development strategy

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Figure 2

Schematic of combustor with CMC liners in Solar’s Centaur® 50S gas turbine

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Figure 3

The ChevronTexaco Bakersfield site with field test engine in package on the right

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Figure 4

Centaur® 50S gas turbine engine at Malden Mills textile facility

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Figure 5

CGNi∕PyC∕E‐SiC (CVI) liners before 100h test

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Figure 6

CGNi∕PyC∕E‐SiC (CVI) inner liner after 948h test (CT-1)

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Figure 7

Inner (left) and outer liner (right) sections after 948h test (CT-1) (11)

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Figure 8

Digital photographs of HiNi SiC∕PyC∕E‐SiC (CVI) outer liner (top) and HiNi SiC∕BN∕SiC‐Si (MI) inner liner (bottom) after 5016 field test hours (CT-4) (5,10,15)

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Figure 9

CMC liner set with EBC for field test CT-5 (5-6,10,16)

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Figure 10

Basic EBC microstructure (17)

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Figure 11

Breach in HiNi SiC∕BN∕SiC‐Si (MI) inner liner after 13,937h test (5,18)

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Figure 12

Liners after 13,937h test, (a) HiNi SiC∕PyC∕E‐SiC (CVI) outer liner, (b) HiNi SiC∕BN∕SiC‐Si (MI) inner liner, (c) thermal diffusivity scan of inner liner before test (5-6,18-19)

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Figure 13

Pitting on the HiNi SiC∕PyC∕E‐SiC (CVI) outer liner (a) Area A in Fig. 1(19), (b) pitting microstructure after 13,937h test (CT-5) (17)

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Figure 14

Digital photographs of (a) HiNi∕BN∕SiC‐Si (MI) inner liner and (b) HiNi∕PyC∕E‐SiC (CVI) outer liner after 7238h field test (MM-1) (5,18)

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Figure 15

Liners of MM-1 field test after additional 5135h field test (CT-6); total test time: 12,373h (CT-6)

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Figure 16

Digital photographs of (a) TyZM∕BN∕SiC‐Si (MI) inner liner and (23), (b) HiNi∕PyC∕E‐SiC (CVI) outer liner after 15,144h field test (MM-2); ID∕OD: inner∕outer diameter

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Figure 17

SiO2 layer on EBC at the (Si∕Mulllite+BSAS) interface; inner liner after 15,144h test (23)

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Figure 18

TyZMI∕BN∕SiC‐Si (MI) outer liner (a) and inner liner (b) after 8368h field test (MM-3)

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Figure 19

Borescope image of oxide∕oxide CMC outer liner with FGI after 10,667h and 61 starts of engine test CT-7

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Figure 20

Repaired oxide∕oxide CMC liner with FGI prior to continuation of the field test



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