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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

# Ignition Delay and Combustion Characteristics of Gaseous Fuel Jets

[+] Author and Article Information
Dung Ngoc Nguyen1

Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japandungnn2@elan.energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp

Hiroaki Ishida, Masahiro Shioji

Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(4), 042804 (Jan 27, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000115 History: Received April 08, 2009; Revised July 24, 2009; Published January 27, 2010; Online January 27, 2010

## Abstract

Gaseous fuels, such as hydrogen and natural gas, are utilized in internal combustion engines for spark-ignition operation. To improve thermal efficiency and to ensure control at good heat-release rates, combustion systems with direct-injection and spontaneous-ignition operation may be preferable. The main objective of this research was to provide fundamental data for the ignition and combustion of hydrogen, natural gas, and methane. Experiments were conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel to investigate the effects of ambient temperature on ignition delay and combustion characteristics for various injector and ambient conditions. Experimental results showed that all gaseous fuels exhibited similar ignition-delay trends: ignition delay $(τ)$ increased as ambient temperature $(Ti)$ decreased. Among these fuels, hydrogen jets exhibited much shorter $τ$ than natural gas and methane jets at the same $Ti$ and could be ignited at a lower temperature, $Ti=780 K$. A shorter ignition delay of hydrogen may be attained by controlling the mixture formation by lowering the injection pressure $(pj)$, enlarging the nozzle-hole diameter $(dN)$, increasing the ambient pressure $(pi)$, and increasing the oxygen mole fraction $(rO2)$. In contrast, the methane jet exhibited the longest $τ$ over the whole range of $Ti$ and suffered from misfiring at a higher $Ti$ of 910 K. For natural gas, ignition delay was observed to be shorter than that for methane, owing to a small amount of butane with good ignitability. More specifically, the ignition delay of natural gas differed slightly when $dN$ and $pj$ varied but changed drastically when $pi$ and $rO2$ decreased. Based on these data, the feasibility of gaseous fuels for compression-ignition engines is discussed from the viewpoint of mixture formation and chemical reaction.

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## Figures

Figure 1

Cross section of constant-volume combustion vessel

Figure 2

Effects of Ti on t for H2, NG, and CH4

Figure 3

Effects of Ti on dq/dt for H2, NG, and CH4

Figure 4

Shadowgraph images of jet and flame developments for H2, NG, and CH4 at Ti=1000 K

Figure 5

Effects of dN on τ for H2 and NG jets

Figure 10

Effects of pi on dq/dt for H2 and NG jets

Figure 11

Effects of rO2 on τ for H2 and NG jets

Figure 12

Effects of rO2 on dq/dt for H2 and NG jets

Figure 6

Effects of dN on dq/dt for H2 and NG jets

Figure 7

Effects of pj on τ for H2 and NG jets

Figure 8

Effects of pj on dq/dt for H2 and NG jets

Figure 9

Effects of pi on τ for H2 and NG jets

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