Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Engine Design and Operational Impacts on Particulate Matter Precursor Emissions

[+] Author and Article Information
Stephen P. Lukachko

Gas Turbine Laboratory, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139sluka@mit.edu

Ian A. Waitz

Gas Turbine Laboratory, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139iaw@mit.edu

Richard C. Miake-Lye

Center for Aerothermodynamics, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA 01821rick@aerodyne.com

Robert C. Brown

Center for Aerothermodynamics, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA 01821

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 130(2), 021505 (Feb 29, 2008) (15 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2795758 History: Received November 21, 2005; Revised February 14, 2007; Published February 29, 2008

Aircraft emissions of trace sulfur and nitrogen oxides contribute to the generation of fine volatile particulate matter (PM). Resultant changes to ambient PM concentrations and radiative properties of the atmosphere may be important sources of aviation-related environmental impacts. This paper addresses engine design and operational impacts on aerosol precursor emissions of SOx and NOy species. Volatile PM formed from these species in the environment surrounding an aircraft is dependent on intraengine oxidation processes occurring both within and downstream of the combustor. This study examines the complex response of trace chemistry to the temporal and spatial evolution of temperature and pressure along this entire intraengine path after combustion through the aft combustor, turbine, and exhaust nozzle. Low-order and higher-fidelity tools are applied to model the interaction of chemical and fluid mechanical processes, identify important parameters, and assess uncertainties. The analysis suggests that intraengine processing is inefficient. For in-service engine types in the large commercial aviation fleet, mean conversion efficiency (ε) is estimated to be 2.8–6.5% for sulfate precursors and 0.3–5.7% for nitrate precursors at the engine exit plane. These ranges reflect technological differences within the fleet, a variation in oxidative activity with operating mode, and modeling uncertainty stemming from variance in rate parameters and initial conditions. Assuming that sulfur-derived volatile PM is most likely, these results suggest emission indices of 0.060.13gkg fuel, assuming particles nucleated as 2H2SO4H2O for a fuel sulfur content of 500ppm.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 3

Intraengine conversion efficiencies (εSO3, εHONO, and εNO2) estimated using 1D flow-averaged simulations

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Figure 4

Explanation of variance in conversion efficiency trends as a function of technology and flight condition using Da

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Figure 1

Chemical kinetic drivers of trace SO3, HONO, and NO2 chemistry

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Figure 2

Conversion potential (ΔεSO3) as a function of temperature and pressure. To calculate ε′, the fuel hydrogen-carbon ratio (H∕C) is set at 2, and the FSC is specified at 500ppm, both representative of Jet A fuel.

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Figure 8

Best estimate conversion efficiencies (εSO3, εHONO, and εNO2) as a function of technology and operating mode

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Figure 5

Relative uncertainties in species concentrations and conversion efficiencies

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Figure 6

Distribution of SO3 and temperature across a turbine stage

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Figure 7

Effect of nonuniformity as a function of power setting (P), pattern factor (PF), and FSC



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