Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Effect of Injection Timing on Combustion, NOx, Particulate Matter and Soluble Organic Fraction Composition in a 2-Stroke Tier 0+ Locomotive Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Stanislav V. Bohac

University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: sbohac@umich.edu

Eric Feiler

e-mail: efeiler@peaker.com

Ian Bradbury

e-mail: isb@peaker.com
Peaker Services, Inc.,
Brighton, MI 48116

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 21, 2012; final manuscript received July 23, 2012; published online November 21, 2012. Editor: Dilip R. Ballal.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(1), 012802 (Nov 21, 2012) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1294; doi: 10.1115/1.4007376 History: Received July 21, 2012; Revised July 23, 2012

The effects of injection timing on combustion, NOx, PM mass and composition from a 2-stroke turbocharged Tier 0+ locomotive diesel engine are investigated in this study. Results provide insight into how injection timing affects combustion and emissions in this family of engine and identifies areas of potential future emissions reduction. For a range of injection timings at a medium load (notch 5) operating condition, the majority of PM mass is insolubles (81–89%), while the soluble component of PM (SOF) accounts for a smaller fraction (11–19%) of total PM mass. The SOF is 66–80% oil-like C22-C30+ hydrocarbons, with the remainder being fuel-like C9-C21 hydrocarbons. A heat release analysis is used to calculate mass fraction burned curves and elucidates how injection timing affects combustion. Retarding injection timing retards combustion phasing, decreases peak cylinder pressure and temperature, and increases expansion pressure and temperature. Results show that insolubles and fuel-like hydrocarbons increase, and oil-like hydrocarbons decrease with later injection timing. Analysis suggests that insolubles and fuel-like HC increase due to lower peak combustion temperature, while oil-like HC, which are distributed more widely throughout the cylinder, decrease due to higher expansion temperatures. The net result is that total PM mass increases with retarded combustion phasing, mostly due to increased insolubles. Considering the high fraction of insoluble PM (81–89%) at all injection timings tested at notch 5, steps taken to reduce PM elemental carbon should be the most effective path for future reductions in PM emissions. Further reductions in oil consumption may also reduce PM, but to a smaller extent.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Effect of SOI on cylinder pressure and combustion at notch 5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Effect of SOI on cylinder pressure and combustion at notch 8

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Brake specific fuel consumption versus SOI at notches 5 and 8

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Fig. 4

Brake specific NOx emissions versus SOI at notches 5 and 8

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Fig. 5

Brake specific PM emissions versus SOI at notches 5 and 8

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

PM SOF versus SOI at notch 5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

SOF composition at notch 5, SOI = 9 °BTDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

SOF composition at notch 5, SOI = 2 °BTDC

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Fig. 9

SOF composition versus SOI at notch 5

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Fig. 10

PM composition versus SOI at notch 5



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