Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Laminar Flame Speed and Ignition Delay Time Data for the Kinetic Modeling of Hydrogen and Syngas Fuel Blends

[+] Author and Article Information
Eric L. Petersen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843

Henry J. Curran

Combustion Chemistry Centre,
National University of Ireland Galway,
Galway, Ireland

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received July 20, 2012; final manuscript received August 21, 2012; published online January 8, 2013. Editor: Dilip R. Ballal.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(2), 021503 (Jan 08, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1293; doi: 10.1115/1.4007737 History: Received July 20, 2012; Revised August 21, 2012

Laminar flame speeds and ignition delay times have been measured for hydrogen and various compositions of H2/CO (syngas) at elevated pressures and elevated temperatures. Two constant-volume cylindrical vessels were used to visualize the spherical growth of the flame through the use of a schlieren optical setup to measure the laminar flame speed of the mixture. Hydrogen experiments were performed at initial pressures up to 10 atm and initial temperatures up to 443 K. A syngas composition of 50/50 by volume was chosen to demonstrate the effect of carbon monoxide on H2-O2 chemical kinetics at standard temperature and pressures up to 10 atm. All atmospheric mixtures were diluted with standard air, while all elevated-pressure experiments were diluted with a He:O2 ratio of 7:1 to minimize instabilities. The laminar flame speed measurements of hydrogen and syngas are compared to available literature data over a wide range of equivalence ratios, where good agreement can be seen with several data sets. Additionally, an improved chemical kinetics model is shown for all conditions within the current study. The model and the data presented herein agree well, which demonstrates the continual, improved accuracy of the chemical kinetics model. A high-pressure shock tube was used to measure ignition delay times for several baseline compositions of syngas at three pressures across a wide range of temperatures. The compositions of syngas (H2/CO) by volume presented in this study included 80/20, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80, and 10/90, all of which are compared to previously published ignition delay times from a hydrogen-oxygen mixture to demonstrate the effect of carbon monoxide addition. Generally, an increase in carbon monoxide increases the ignition delay time, but there does seem to be a pressure dependency. At low temperatures and pressures higher than about 12 atm, the ignition delay times appear to be indistinguishable with an increase in carbon monoxide. However, at high temperatures the relative composition of H2 and CO has a strong influence on ignition delay times. Model agreement is good across the range of the study, particularly at the elevated pressures.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Chacartegui, R., Sánchez, D., Muñoz de Escalona, J. M., Jimenez-Espadafor, F., Muñoz, A., and Sánchez, T., 2012, “SPHERA Project: Assessing the Use of Syngas Fuels in Gas Turbines and Combined Cycles From a Global Perspective,” Fuel Processing Tech., 103, pp. 134–145. [CrossRef]
Vagelopoulos, C. M., Egolfopoulos, F. N., and Law, C. K., 1994, “Further Considerations on the Determination of Laminar Flame Speeds With the Counterflow Twin-Flame Technique,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 25, pp. 1341–1347. [CrossRef]
Pareja, J., Burbano, H. J., and Ogami, Y., 2010, “Measurements of the Laminar Burning Velocity of Hydrogen-Air Premixed Flames,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 35, pp. 1812–1818. [CrossRef]
Burke, M. P., Chen, Z., Ju, Y., and Dryer, F. L., 2009, “Effect of Cylindrical Confinement on the Determination of Laminar Flame Speeds Using Outwardly Propagating Flames,” Combust. Flame, 156, pp. 771–779. [CrossRef]
Egolfopoulos, F. N., and Law, C. K., 1990, “An Experimental and Computational Study of the Burning Rates of Ultra-Lean to Moderately-Rich H2/O2/N2 Laminar Flames With Pressure Variations,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 23, pp. 333–340. [CrossRef]
Tse, S. D., Zhu, D. L., and Law, C. K., 2000, “Morphology and Burning Rates of Expanding Spherical Flames in H2/O2/Inert Mixtures up to 60 Atmospheres,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 28, pp. 1793–1800. [CrossRef]
Lamoureux, N., Djebaili-Chaumeix, N., and Paillard, C. E., 2003, “Laminar Flame Velocity Determination for H2-Air-He-CO2 Mixtures Using the Spherical Bomb Method,” Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci., 27, pp. 385–393. [CrossRef]
Aung, K. T., Hassan, M. I., and Faeth, G. M., 1997, “Flame Stretch Interactions of Laminar Premixed Hydrogen/Air Flames at Normal Temperature and Pressure,” Combust. Flame, 109, pp. 1–24. [CrossRef]
Kuznetsov, M., Redlinger, R., Breitung, W., Grune, J., Friedrich, A., and Ichikawa, N., 2010, “Laminar Burning Velocities of Hydrogen-Oxygen-Steam Mixtures at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 33, pp. 895–903. [CrossRef]
Verhelst, S., Woolley, R., Lawes, M., and Sierens, R., 2005, “Laminar and Unstable Burning Velocities and Markstein Lengths of Hydrogen-Air Mixtures at Engine-Like Conditions,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 30, pp. 209–216. [CrossRef]
Dahoe, A. E., 2005, “Laminar Burning Velocities of Hydrogen-Air Mixtures From Closed Vessel Gas Explosions,” J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., 18, pp. 152–166. [CrossRef]
Kwon, O. C., and Faeth, G. M., 2001, “Flame/Stretch Interactions of Premixed Hydrogen-Fueled Flames: Measurements and Predictions,” Combust. Flame, 124, pp. 590–610. [CrossRef]
Hu, E., Huang, Z., He, J., and Miao, H., 2009, “Experimental and Numerical Study on Laminar Burning Velocities and Flame Instabilities of Hydrogen-Air Mixtures at Elevated Pressures and Temperatures,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 34, pp. 8741–8755. [CrossRef]
Das, A. K., Kumar, K., and Sung, C.-J., 2011, “Laminar Flame Speeds of Moist Syngas Mixtures,” Combust. Flame, 158, pp. 345–353. [CrossRef]
Burke, M. P., Qin, X., Ju, Y., and Dryer, F. L., 2007, “Measurements of Hydrogen Syngas Flame Speeds at Elevated Pressures,” 5th U.S. Combustion Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 25–28, Paper No. A16.
Natarajan, J., Kochar, Y., Lieuwen, T., and Seitzman, J., 2009, “Pressure and Preheat Dependence of Laminar Flame Speeds of H2/CO/CO2/O2/He Mixtures,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32, pp. 1261–1268. [CrossRef]
Natarajan, J., Nandula, S., Lieuwen, T., and Seitzman, J., 2005, “Laminar Flame Speeds of Synthetic Gas Fuel Mixtures,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68917. [CrossRef]
McLean, I. C., Smith, D. B., and Taylor, S.C., 1994, “The Use of Carbon Monoxide/Hydrogen Burning Velocities to Examine the Rate of the CO + OH Reaction,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 25, pp. 749–757. [CrossRef]
Dong, C., Zhou, Q., Zhao, Q., Zhang, Y., Xu, T., and Hui, S., 2009, “Experimental Study on the Laminar Flame Speed of Hydrogen/Carbon Monoxide/Air Mixtures,” Fuel, 88, pp. 1858–1863. [CrossRef]
Hassan, M. I., Aung, K. T., and Faeth, G. M., 1997, “Properties of Laminar Premixed CO/H2/Air Flames at Various Pressures,” J. Prop. Power, 13, pp. 239–245. [CrossRef]
Bouvet, N., Chauveau, C., Gokalp, I., and Halter, F., 2011, “Experimental Studies of the Fundamental Flame Speeds of Syngas (H2/CO)/Air Mixtures,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 33, pp. 913–920. [CrossRef]
Prathap, C., Ray, A., and Ravi, M. R., 2008, “Investigation of Nitrogen Dilution Effects on the Laminar Burning Velocities and Flame Stability of Syngas Fuel at Atmospheric Condition,” Combust. Flame, 155, pp. 145–160. [CrossRef]
Burke, M. P., Chaos, M., Dryer, F. L., and Ju, Y., 2010, “Negative Pressure Dependence of Mass Burning Rates of H2/CO/O2/Diluent Flames at Low Flame Temperature,” Combust. Flame, 157, pp. 618–631. [CrossRef]
Sun, H., Yang, S. I., Jomaas, G., and Law, C. K., 2007, “High-Pressures Laminar Flame Speeds and Kinetic Modeling of Carbon Monoxide/Hydrogen Combustion,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 31, pp. 439–446. [CrossRef]
de Vries, J., Lowry, W., Serinyel, Z., Curran, H., and Petersen, E., 2011, “Laminar Flame Speed Measurements of Dimethyl Ether in Air at Pressures up to 10 atm,” Fuel, 90(1), pp. 331–338. [CrossRef]
Lowry, W., de Vries, J., Krejci, M., Serinyel, Z., Metcalfe, W., Curran, H., Petersen, E., and BourqueG., 2011, “Laminar Flame Speed Measurements and Modeling of Pure Alkanes and Alkane Blends at Elevated Pressures,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(9), p. 091501. [CrossRef]
Krejci, M., Vissotski, A., Lowry, W., Ravi, S., and Petersen, E., 2011, “Development of a High-Temperature and High-Pressure Vessel for Laminar Flame Speed Measurements,” 7th U.S. National Combustion Meeting (Combustion Institute), Atlanta, GA, March 20–23.
Settles, G. S., 2006, Schlieren and Shadowgraph Techniques, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany.
Petersen, E. L., Rickard, M. J. A., Crofton, M. W., Abbey, E. D., Traum, M. J., and Kalitan, D. M., 2005, “A Facility for Gas- and Condensed-Phase Measurements Behind Shock Waves,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 16, pp. 1716–1729. [CrossRef]
Markstein, G. H., 1964, Non-Steady Flame Propagation, Pergamon, New York.
Dowdy, D. R., Smith, D. B., Taylor, S. C., and Williams, A., 1990, “The Use of Expanding Spherical Flames to Determine Burning Velocities and Stretch Effects in Hydrogen/Air Mixtures,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 23, pp. 325–332. [CrossRef]
Brown, J. M., McLean, I. C., Smith, D. B., and Taylor, S. C., 1996, “Markstein Lengths of CO/H2/Air Flames, Using Expanding Spherical Flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 26, pp. 875–881. [CrossRef]
Reynolds, W. C., 1986, “The Element Potential Method for Chemical Equilibrium Analysis: Implementation in the Interactive Program STANJAN,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
Moffat, R. J., 1988, “Describing Uncertainties in Experimental Results,” Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci., 1 pp. 3–17. [CrossRef]
NUI Galway, 2011, “Combustion Chemistry Centre,” National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland, http://c3.nuigalway.ie/
Ó Conaire, M., Curran, H. J., Simmie, J. M., Pitz, W. J., and Westbrook, C. K., 2004, “A Comprehensive Modeling Study of Hydrogen Oxidation,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 36, pp. 603–622. [CrossRef]
Kéromnès, A., Metcalfe, W. K., Donohoe, N., Curran, H. J., and Pitz, W. J., 2011, “Detailed Chemical Kinetic Model for H2 and H2/CO (Syngas) Mixtures at Elevated Pressure,” 7th U.S. National Combustion Meeting (Combustion Institute), Atlanta, GA, March 21–23.
KéromnèsA., Metcalfe, W. K., Heufer, K. A., Donohoe, N., Das, A. K., Sung, C. J., Herzler, J., Naumann, K., Griebel, P., Mathieu, O., Krejci, M. J., Petersen, E. L., Pitz, W. J., and Curran, H. J., 2012, “An Experimental and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modelling Study of Hydrogen and Syngas Mixtures at Elevated Pressures,” Combust. Flame (in press).
Hong, Z., Davidson, D. F., Barbour, E. A., and Hanson, R. K., 2011, “A New Shock Tube Study of the H + O2 → OH + O Reaction Rate Using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption of H2O Near 2.5 μm,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 33, pp. 309–316. [CrossRef]
Fernandes, R. X., Luther, K., Troe, J., and Ushakov, V. G., 2008, “Experimental and Modelling Study of the Recombination Reaction H + O2 (+M) → HO2 (+M) Between 300 and 900 K, 1.5 and 950 bar, and in the Bath Gases M = He, Ar, and N2,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 10(29), pp. 4313–4321. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Troe, J., 2011, “The Thermal Dissociation/Recombination Reaction of Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2(+M)⇔2OH(+M) III.: Analysis and Representation of the Temperature and Pressure Dependence Over Wide Ranges,” Combust. Flame, 158, pp. 594–601. [CrossRef]
Ellingson, B. A., Theis, D. P., Tishchenko, O., Zheng, J., and Truhlar, D. G., 2007, “Reactions of Hydrogen Atom With Hydrogen Peroxide,” J. Phys. Chem. A, 111(51), pp. 13554–13566. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
CHEMKIN-PRO 15101, 2010, Reaction Design, San Diego.
Krejci, M. C., Mathieu, O., Vissotski, A. J., Ravi, S., Sikes, T. G., Petersen, E. L., Kéromnès, A., Metcalfe, W., and Curran, H. J., 2012, “Laminar Flame Speed and Ignition Delay Time Data for the Kinetic Modeling of Hydrogen and Syngas Fuel Blends,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-69290.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Images from the flame detection program. (a) The contrast of the image is changed to locate the edge of the flame. (b) The original image is shown with the edge detection.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Flame images for 1-atm (left), 5-atm (middle), and 10-atm (right) 50:50 H2:CO. The oxidizer for the atmospheric experiment is air, while the oxidizer for the 5 - and 10-atm experiments is 7:1 He:O2.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Optical setup for high-speed schlieren system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Layout of the flame speed facility at Texas A&M University

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Determination of the ignition delay time from normalized OH* (gray) and pressure (black) profiles with a mixture of 0.5% H2 + 0.5% CO + 1% O2 in 98% Ar at 1375 K and 1.65 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Atmospheric hydrogen flame speed data with calculated uncertainty bars shown, per Table 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison of laminar flame speed data at 5 and 10 atm for 50:50 H2:CO diluted with 7He:O2 with literature data and the chemical kinetics model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Atmospheric hydrogen-air literature comparison to the data herein and the chemical kinetics model at standard temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Atmospheric hydrogen-air at equivalence ratios less than 1.0. This plot is a close up view of the fuel-lean portion of Fig. 7, to highlight this region.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Hydrogen diluted with 7He:O2 at 5 and 10 atm compared with the chemical kinetics model and data from Tse et al. [6]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Comparison of atmospheric hydrogen-air data herein, data from Hu et al. [13], and the chemical kinetics model at elevated temperatures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Laminar flame speed of hydrogen diluted with 7He:O2 at 5 atm and elevated temperatures compared to the chemical kinetics model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Literature comparison of atmospheric 50:50 H2:CO-air laminar flame speed data with the data herein and the chemical kinetics model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Ignition delay times at around 1.6 atm for various mixtures of H2/CO/O2 (98% dilution in Ar, equivalence ratio = 0.5). Lines are model simulations.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Evolution of the ignition delay time with the inverse of the temperature at around 12 atm for various mixtures of H2/CO/O2 (98% dilution in Ar, equivalence ratio = 0.5). Lines are model simulations.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Ignition delay times at around 30 atm for various mixtures of H2/CO/O2 98% (dilution in Ar, equivalence ratio = 0.5). Lines are model simulations.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Effect of pressure on the ignition delay time for mixtures of H2/O2 and 10/90 H2/CO (98% dilution in Ar, equivalence ratio = 0.5). Lines are model simulations.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In