Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Microturbines and Small Turbomachinery

Assessment of Waste Heat Recovery From a Heavy-Duty Truck Engine by Means of an ORC Turbogenerator

[+] Author and Article Information
Wolfgang Lang

Institute for Internal Combustion
Engines and Thermodynamics,
Graz University of Technology,
Inffeldgasse 21,
Graz, 8010, Austria
e-mail: Wolfgang.Lang@ivt.tugraz.at

Piero Colonna

Process and Energy Department,
Delft University of Technology,
Leeghwaterstraat 44,
Delft, 2628 CA, The Netherlands
e-mail: P.Colonna@TUDelft.nl

Raimund Almbauer

Institute for Internal Combustion
Engines and Thermodynamics,
Graz University of Technology,
Inffeldgasse 21,
Graz, 8010, Austria
e-mail: Raimund.Almbauer@ivt.tugraz.at

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received March 27, 2012; final manuscript received October 17, 2012; published online March 18, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Joost J. Brasz.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(4), 042313 (Mar 18, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1091; doi: 10.1115/1.4023123 History: Received March 27, 2012; Revised October 17, 2012

This paper documents a feasibility study on a waste heat recovery system for heavy-duty truck engines based on an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbogenerator. The study addresses many of the challenges of a mobile automotive application: The system must be simple, efficient, relatively small, lightweight, and the working fluid must satisfy the many technical, environmental, and toxicological requirements typical of the automotive sector. The choice of a siloxane as the working fluid allows for the preliminary design of an efficient radial turbine, whose shaft can be lubricated by the working fluid itself. The system's heat exchangers, though more voluminous than desirable, are within acceptable limits. The simulated ORC system would add approximately 9.6 kW at the design point, corresponding to a truck engine power output of 150 kW at 1500 rpm. Future work will be devoted to further system and components optimization by means of simulations, to the study of dynamic operation and control, and will be followed by the design and construction of a laboratory test bench for mini-ORC systems and components.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Freymann, R., Strobl, W., and Obieglo, A., 2008, “The Turbosteamer: A System Introducing the Principle of Cogeneration in Automotive Applications,” MTZ Motortech. Z., 69, pp. 20–27.
Lodwig, E., 1970, “Performance of a 35 HP Organic Rankine Cycle Exhaust Gas Powered System,” SAE Paper No. 700160.
Doyle, E. F., Di Nanno, L., and Kramer, S., 1979, “Installation of a Diesel Organic Rankine Compound Engine in a Class 8-Truck for a Single Vehicle Test,” SAE Paper No. 790646. [CrossRef]
Patel, P. S. and Doyle, E. F., 1976, “Compounding the Truck Diesel Engine With an Organic Rankine Cycle System,” SAE Paper No. 760343. [CrossRef]
Platell, O. B., 1976, “Progress of Saab Scania's Steam Power Project,” SAE Paper No. 760344. [CrossRef]
Di Nanno, L. R., Di Bella, F. A., and Koplow, M. D., 1983, “An RC-1 Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle for an Adiabatic Diesel Engine,” Report, DOE/NASA/0302-1, NASA CR-168256, December.
Koplow, M. D., Di Nanno, L. R., and Di Bella, F. A., 1984, “Status Report for an RC-1 Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle for an Adiabatic Diesel Engine,” Proceedings of the 21st Automotive Technology Development Contractors' Coordination Meeting, Dearborn, MI, October 21–24.
Teng, H., Regner, G., and Cowland, C., 2007, “Waste Heat Recovery of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines by Organic Rankine Cycle Part I: Hybrid Energy System of Diesel and Rankine Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-0537. [CrossRef]
Teng, H., Regner, G., and Cowland, C., 2007, “Waste Heat Recovery of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines by Organic Rankine Cycle Part II: Working Fluids for WHR-ORC,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0543. [CrossRef]
Hountalas, D. T., Katsanos, C. O., Rogadiks, E. D., and Kouremenos, D. A., 2007, “Study of Available Exhaust Gas Hat Recovery Technologies for HD Diesel Engine Applications,” Int. J. Alternative Propul., 1(2/3), pp. 228–249. [CrossRef]
Nelson, C., 2006, “Achieving High Efficiency at 2010 Emissions,” Diesel Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference, Detroit, MI, August 23.
Nelson, C., 2008, “Exhaust Energy Recovery,” Semi-Mega Merit Review, Department of Energy, Washington, DC, February 27.
Nelson, C., 2010, “Exhaust Energy Recovery,” Annual Merit Review, Department of Energy, Washington, DC, June 10.
Espinosa, N., Tilman, L., Lemort, V., Quoilin, S., and Lombard, B., 2010, “Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery on Commercial Trucks: Approach, Constraints and Modelling,” 24th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, Lausanne, Switzerland, June 14–17.
Srinivasan, K. K., Mago, P. J., and Krishnan, S. R., 2010, “Analysis of Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery From a Dual Fuel Low Temperature Combustion Engine Using an Organic Rankine Cycle,” Int. J. Energy, 35, pp. 2387–2399. [CrossRef]
Wang, T., Zhang, Y., Peng, Z., and Shu, G., 2011, “A Review of Researches on Thermal Exhaust Heat Recovery With Rankine Cycle,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 15, pp. 2862–2871. [CrossRef]
Buschmann, G., Clemens, H., Hoetger, M., and MayerB., 2001, “Der Dampfmotor – Entwicklungsstand und Marktchancen,” MTZ Motortech. Z., 62, pp. 2–10.
van der Stelt, T. P., Woudstra, N., and Colonna, P., 1985–2012, “Cycle-Tempo: A Program for Thermodynamic Modeling and Optimization of Energy Conversion Systems,” http://www.asimptote.com/software/cycletempo
Albrigo, D. M., 2007, “Binary Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator: A Viable Option for High Efficiency Power Conversion,” Master thesis, ET-2265, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
Ganassin, S., 2009, “Steady State Models for Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerators,” Master thesis, ET-2373, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
Westerdijk, T., 2010, “Island Operation of Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerators,” Master thesis, ET-2427, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
Colonna, P., Nannan, N. R., Guardone, A., and Lemmon, E. W., 2006, “Multiparameter Equations of State for Selected Siloxanes,” Fluid Phase Equilib., 244, pp. 193–211. [CrossRef]
Fernández, F. J., Prieto, M. M., and Suárez, I., 2011, “Thermodynamic Analysis of High-Temperature Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycles Using Siloxanes as Working Fluids,” Energy, 36, pp. 5239–5249. [CrossRef]
Nannan, N. R., Colonna, P., Tracy, C. M., Rowley, R. L., and Hurly, J. J., 2007, “Ideal-Gas Heat Capacities of Dimethylsiloxanes From Speed-of-Sound Measurements and Ab Initio Calculations,” Fluid Phase Equilib., 257, pp. 102–113. [CrossRef]
Colonna, P., Nannan, N. R., and Guardone, A., 2008, “Multiparameter Equations of State for Siloxanes: [(CH3)3-Si-O1/2]2-[O-Si-(CH3)2]i = 1,…,3, and [O-Si-(CH3)2]6,” Fluid Phase Equilib., 263, pp. 115–130. [CrossRef]
Nannan, R. N., and Colonna, P., 2009, “Improvement on Multiparameter Equations of State for Dimethylsiloxanes by Adopting More Accurate Ideal-Gas Isobaric Heat Capacities: Supplementary to P. Colonna, N. R. Nannan, A. Guardone, E. W. Lemmon, Fluid Phase Equilib. 244, 193 (2006),” Fluid Phase Equilib., 280(1–2), pp. 151–152. [CrossRef]
Wagner, W., and Kruse, A., 1998, Properties of Water and Steam, The Industrial Standard IAPWS-IF97 for the Thermodynamic Properties and Supplementary Equations for Other Properties, Springer, Berlin.
Colonna, P., and van der Stelt, T. P., 2004–2012, “FluidProp: A Program for the Estimation of Thermo Physical Properties of Fluids,” Software, http://www.asimptote.com/software/fluidprop
Whitfield, A., and Baines, N. C., 1990, Design of Radial Turbomachines, Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, England.
Lang, W., 2010, PHE-design v1.0 software, TU – Graz, Styria, Austria.
AspenTech, 2009, Exchanger Design and Rating (EDR) v7.1, AspenTech, Burlington, MA.
Quoilin, S., 2010, “Sustainable Energy Conversion Through the Use of Organic Rankine Cycles for Waste Heat Recovery and Solar Applications,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
Ray, S. K., and Moss, G., 1965, “Fluorochemicals as Working Fluids for Small Rankine Cycle Power Units,” Adv. Energy Convers., 6, pp. 89–102. [CrossRef]
Colonna, P., 1991, “Fluidi Silossanici per Cicli di Potenza Spaziali (Siloxane Fluids for Space Power Cycles),” Master thesis, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
Karellas, S., and Schuster, A., 2008, “Supercritical Fluid Parameters in Organic Rankine Cycle Applications,” Int. J. Thermodyn., 11(3), pp. 101–108.
Invernizzi, C.Iora, P. and Silva, P., 2007, “Bottoming Micro-Rankine Cycles for Micro-Gas Turbines,” Appl. Thermal Eng., 27, pp. 100–110. [CrossRef]
Marciniak, T. J., Krazinski, J. L., Bratis, J. C., Bushby, H. M., and Buyco, E. H., 1981, “Comparison of Rankine-Cycle Power Systems: Effects of Seven Working Fluids,” Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL.
Liu, B. T., Chien, K. H., and Wang, C. C., 2002, “Effect of Working Fluids on Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery,” Energy, 29, pp. 1207–1217. [CrossRef]
Lewandowski, G. A., and Struss, R. B., 1980, “Final Report: Rankine Bottoming Cycle Safety Analysis,” Vektor Engineering Inc., Springfield, NJ.
Angelino, G., Gaia, M., and Macchi, E., 1984, “A Review of Italian Activity in the Field of Organic Rankine Cycles,” Proceedings of the Intl. VDI Seminar, Bulletin 539, VDI-Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany, pp. 465–482.
Angelino, G., and Invernizzi, C., 1993, “Cyclic Methylsiloxanes as Working Fluids for Space Power Cycles,” ASME J. Solar Energy Eng., 115, pp. 130–137. [CrossRef]
Angelino, G., and Colonna, P., 2000, “Air Cooled Siloxane Bottoming Cycle for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells,” Fuel Cell Seminar, Portland, OR, October 30–November 2.
Angelino, G., and Colonna, P., 2000, “Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) for Energy Recovery From Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells,” Proceedings of 35th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference and Exhibit (IECEC), Las Vegas, NV, July 24–28.
Badr, O., Probert, S. D., and O'Callaghan, P. W., 1985, “Selecting a Working Fluid for a Rankine-Cycle Engine,” Appl. Energy, 21, pp. 1–42. [CrossRef]
Badr, O., Naik, S., O'Callaghan, and Probert, S. D., 1991, “Expansion Machine for a Low Power-Output Steam Rankine-Cycle Engine,” Appl. Energy, 39, pp. 93–116. [CrossRef]
Hung, T. C., Shai, T. Y., and Wang, S. K., 1997, “A Review of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) for the Recovery of Low-Grade Waste Heat,” Energy, 11(7), pp. 661–667. [CrossRef]
Macchi, E., and Perdichizzi, A., 1981, “Efficiency Prediction for Axial-Flow Turbines Operating With Nonconventional Fluids,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 103, pp. 718–724. [CrossRef]
Persson, J. G., 1990, “Performance of Fluid Machinery During Conceptual Design,” Ann. CIRP, 39(1), pp. 137–140. [CrossRef]
Brasz, J., 2008, “Assessment of C6F as Working Fluid for Organic Rankine Cycle Applications,” Proceedings of the International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference, Purdue, West Lafayette, IN, July 14–17.
Angelino, G., and Colonna, P., 1998, “Multicomponent Working Fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs),” Energy, 23(6), pp. 449–463. [CrossRef]
Larjola, J., 1995, “Electricity from Industrial Waste Heat Using High-Speed Organic Rankine Cycle,” Int. J. Product. Econ., 41, pp. 227–235. [CrossRef]
Calderazzi, L., and Colonna, P., 1997, “Thermal Stability of R-134a, R-141b, R-13I1, R-7146, R-125 Associated With Stainless Steel As a Containing Material,” Int. J. Refrig., 20(6), pp. 381–389. [CrossRef]
Tabor, H., and Bronicki, L., 1964, “Establishing Criteria for Small Vapour Turbines,” SAE National Transportation, Power Plant, Fuels and Lubricants Meeting, Baltimore, MD, October 19–23, Paper 931C.
Colonna, P., 1996, “Fluidi di Lavoro Multi Componenti Per Cicli Termodinamici di Potenza (Multicomponent Working Fluids for Power Cycles),” Ph.D. thesis, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
Colonna, P., Harinck, J., Rebay, S., and Guardone, A., 2008, “Real-Gas Effects in Organic Rankine Cycle Turbine Nozzles,” J. Propul. Power, 24, pp. 282–294. [CrossRef]
Whelan, M. J., Estrada, E., and Van Egmond, R. A., 2004, “A Modelling Assessment of the Atmospheric Fate of Volatile Methyl Siloxanes and Their Reaction Products,” Chemosphere, 57(10), pp. 1427–1437. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Carpenter, J. C., Cella, J. A., and Dorn, S. B., 1995, “Study of the Degradation of Polydimethylsiloxanes on Soil,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 29(4), pp. 864–868. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Smith, J. M., van Ness, H. C., and Abbot, M. M., 2005, Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 7th ed., McGraw-Hill, Boston, pp. 597–602.
Vernau, A., 1987, “Supersonic Turbines for Organic Rankine Cycles From 3 kW to 1300 kW,” Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Lecture Series 1987-07.
Pasquale, D., 2008, “zFlow 3: a RANS Solver With Accurate Fluid Property Models for Turbomachinery Applications,” Master thesis, ET-2265, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
Pasquale, D., Ghidoni, A., and Rebay, S., 2012,“Shape Optimization of an ORC Radial Turbine Nozzle,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power (in press).


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Heat recovery system configuration with the two thermal energy sources connected in parallel to the ORC turbogenerator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Results of a parametric study on Rankine cycle systems with H2O, D4, and D5 as working fluids. The constraints are listed in Table 2. Pnet and ηcycle as a function of the reduced evaporator pressure.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) The processes of the optimal D4 ORC system in the T-s thermodynamic diagram. The saturation curve of D4 is also depicted. (b) Q·-T diagram of the evaporator. (c) Q·-T diagram of the regenerator. (d) Q·-T diagram of the condenser.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Exergy losses in percentage of the total exergy loss related to components of the ORC system whose thermodynamic cycle is shown Fig. 3(a)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Simplified cross section of a radial inflow turbine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

h-s diagram showing the expansion process (see Ref. [47]) corresponding to the D4 radial inflow turbine design for the ORC system whose thermodynamic cycle is depicted in Fig. 3(a)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison between optimized designs of heat exchangers for the optimal thermodynamic cycles, utilizing D4 and water as working fluid, in terms of weight and volume. Each point corresponds to the optimal design for a prescribed pressure loss, covering the range of uncertainty of the correlation suitable for the working fluid. (a) EGR–evaporator. (b) Evaporator–exhaust. (c) Condenser.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In