Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

Jet-Surface Interaction Test: Far-Field Noise Results

[+] Author and Article Information
Clifford A. Brown

Aerospace Research Engineer,
Acoustics Branch,
NASA Glenn Research Center,
Cleveland, Ohio 44135
e-mail: Clifford.A.Brown@nasa.gov

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received June 25, 2012; final manuscript received November 24, 2012; published online June 10, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(7), 071201 (Jun 10, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1222; doi: 10.1115/1.4023605 History: Received June 25, 2012; Revised November 24, 2012

Many configurations proposed for the next generation of aircraft rely on the wing or other aircraft surfaces to shield the engine noise from the observers on the ground. However, the ability to predict the shielding effect and any new noise sources that arise from the high-speed jet flow interacting with a hard surface is currently limited. Furthermore, quality experimental data from jets with surfaces nearby suitable for developing and validating noise prediction methods are usually tied to a particular vehicle concept and, therefore, very complicated. The Jet-Surface Interaction Tests are intended to supply a high quality set of data covering a wide range of surface geometries and positions and jet flows to researchers developing aircraft noise prediction tools. The initial goal is to measure the noise of a jet near a simple planar surface while varying the surface length and location in order to: (1) validate noise prediction schemes when the surface is acting only as a jet noise shield and when the jet-surface interaction is creating additional noise, and (2) determine regions of interest for future, more detailed, tests. To meet these objectives, a flat plate was mounted on a two-axis traverse in two distinct configurations: (1) as a shield between the jet and the observer and (2) as a reflecting surface on the opposite side of the jet from the observer. The surface length was varied between 2 and 20 jet diameters downstream of the nozzle exit. Similarly, the radial distance from the jet centerline to the surface face was varied between 1 and 16 jet diameters. Far-field and phased array noise data were acquired at each combination of surface length and radial location using two nozzles operating at jet exit conditions across several flow regimes: subsonic cold, subsonic hot, underexpanded, ideally expanded, and overexpanded supersonic. The far-field noise results, discussed here, show where the jet noise is partially shielded by the surface and where jet-surface interaction noise dominates the low frequency spectrum as a surface extends downstream and approaches the jet plume.

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Fig. 1

Spectral changes as a function of the Strouhal frequency (StDj) attributed to jet-surface interaction noise when a flat plate is near a jet (xTE / Dj = 15, h / Dj = 1, and Ma = 0.9)

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Fig. 2

Schematic showing the surface configuration and nomenclature

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Fig. 3

Spectra and directivity at setpoint 7 (see Table 1), with a shielding surface at xTE/Dj = 10 at different radial locations

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Fig. 4

The ΔAI-OASPL at setpoint 7 (see Table 1), measured on the shielded side of the surface (the negative ΔAI-OASPL represents a reduction from the isolated jet)

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Fig. 5

Spectra measured at θ = 90 deg on the shielded and reflected sides of a surface at xTE/Dj = 15, h/Dj = 1.5 for setpoint 7

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Fig. 6

Jet-surface interaction noise scaling at h/Dj = 1 as a function of Ma for several surface lengths

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Fig. 7

Spectra at setpoints 7, 27, and 46 (Table 1), measured at θ = 90 deg with a shielding surface at xTE/Dj = 10, h/Dj = 1, compared to the corresponding isolated jet

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Fig. 8

ΔAI-OASPL at setpoints 7, 27, and 46 (see Table 1)

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Fig. 9

ΔAI-OASPL at setpoints 7, 27, and 46 (see Table 1), where the surface length is normalized by the Witze parameter

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Fig. 10

Spectra measured at θ = 90 deg for the ideally expanded supersonic jet condition (setpoint 11,610) with the surface at xTE/Dj = 10

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Fig. 11

Spectra measured at θ = 60 deg for the overexpanded supersonic jet condition (setpoint 11,606) with the surface at xTE/Dj = 10

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Fig. 12

Spectra measured at θ = 60 deg for the underexpanded supersonic jet condition (setpoint 11,617) with the surface at xTE/Dj = 10



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