Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Industrial & Cogeneration

Effects of a Low Octane Gasoline Blended Fuel on Negative Valve Overlap Enabled HCCI Load Limit, Combustion Phasing and Burn Duration

[+] Author and Article Information
Luke M. Hagen

e-mail: lumoha@umich.edu

Laura Manofsky Olesky

e-mail: manofsky@umich.edu

Stanislav V. Bohac

e-mail: sbohac@umich.edu

George Lavoie

e-mail: glavoie@umich.edu
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Dennis Assanis

Office of the Provost,
Stony Brook University,
Stony Brook, NY 11794
e-mail: dennis.assanis@stonybrook.edu

1Dennis Assanis is the former Jon R. and Beverly S. Holt Professor of Engineering, and former Director of the Walter E. Lay Automotive Laboratory at the University of Michigan. He is presently the Provost and Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs at Stony Brook University, and VP for Brookhaven Affairs.

Contributed by the IC Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received November 18, 2012; final manuscript received November 26, 2012; published online June 12, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(7), 072001 (Jun 12, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-12-1439; doi: 10.1115/1.4023885 History: Received November 18, 2012; Revised November 26, 2012

Homogeneous charge compression iginition (HCCI) combustion allows for the use of fuels with octane requirements below that of spark-ignited engines. A reference gasoline was compared with iso-octane and a low octane blend of gasoline and 40% n-heptane, NH40. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder engine operating with negative valve overlap (NVO). The fuel flow rate per cycle was compensated based on the lower heating value to maintain a constant energy addition across fuels. Iso-octane and gasoline demonstrated similar maximum load, achieving a gross IMEPg of ~430 kPa, whereas the NH40 demonstrated an increased IMEPg of ~460 kPa. The NH40 could be operated at a later phasing compared with the higher octane fuels, and exhibited a shorter burn duration at a given fueling rate and phasing. These results could be due to compositional differences, as NH40 required less NVO compared to iso-octane and gasoline, leading to less thermal and compositional stratification, as well as a higher O2 concentration and less residual gas. Additionally, the NH40 fuel demonstrated a higher intermediate temperature heat release than the higher octane fuels, potentially contributing to the shorter burn duration. Overall, these results demonstrate clear benefits to NVO enabled HCCI combustion with low octane fuels.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the FFVA experimental setup

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Fig. 2

Operational range of the baseline gasoline

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Fig. 3

NVO range of the baseline gasoline

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Fig. 4

Comparison of required NVO for the three test fuels

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Fig. 5

Overlaid operational range of the test fuels, highlighting the 9.0 bar EMEP and peak EMEP cases

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Fig. 6

Comparison of IMEPg for sweeps at 9.0 bar EMEP

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Fig. 7

Cylinder pressure trace for the most advanced cases at 9.0 bar EMEP

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Fig. 8

Comparing fuel/air (φ) and fuel/charge (φ′) equivalence ratio with thermal efficiency

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Fig. 9

Heat release and inferred average cylinder temperature for the most advanced cases at 9.0 bar EMEP

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Fig. 10

Heat release and inferred average cylinder temperature at the most retarded phasing at the highest EMEP

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Fig. 11

Decreasing burn duration with lower octane fuels at 9 bar EMEP

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Fig. 12

Comparison of burn duration at peak load sweeps for the three fuels

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Fig. 13

Comparison of the 10–90 burn duration to CA50 and CA90 at 9.0 bar EMEP (lower graph) and peak load (upper graph—9.8 bar for Iso-octane, 10.0 bar for NH40) EMEP for iso-octane and NH40

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Fig. 14

Estimated oxygen and residual gas mass fractions for the NVO sweep at 9 bar EMEP

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Fig. 15

Normalized HRR of the highest IMEPg points at 9 bar EMEP

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Fig. 16

Rescaled HRR to highlight ITHR for NH40 at 9 bar EMEP

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Fig. 17

Normalized HRR of the highest IMEPg points at the highest EMEP for three fuels

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Fig. 18

Rescaled HRR to highlight ITHR for NH40 at peak IMEPg and EMEP



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