Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Flame Patterns and Combustion Intensity Behind Rifled Bluff-Body Frustums

[+] Author and Article Information
Kuo C. San

Department of Aircraft Engineering,
Air Force Institute of Technology,
No. 198, Jieshou W. Road,
Gangshan District,
Kaohsiung City 820, Taiwan
e-mail: d90543001@ntu.edu.tw

Yu Z. Huang

e-mail: lion73321@yahoo.com.tw

Shun C. Yen

e-mail: scyen@mail.ntou.edu.tw
Department of Mechanical and
Mechatronic Engineering,
National Taiwan Ocean University,
No. 2, Beining Road,
Zhongzheng District,
Keelung City 202, Taiwan

1Address correspondence to this author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 13, 2013; final manuscript received July 13, 2013; published online September 20, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Joseph Zelina.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(12), 121502 (Sep 20, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1008; doi: 10.1115/1.4025262 History: Received January 13, 2013; Revised July 13, 2013

Rifled fillisters were milled on cannular frustums to modulate flow behavior and to increase the turbulence intensity (TI). The TI and combustion intensity were compared in four configurations of frustums—unrifled, inner-rifled, outer-rifled, and two-faced rifled. The flame patterns and flame lengths were observed and measured by direct-color photography. The temperature profiles and (total) combustion intensity were detected and calculated with an R-type thermocouple. Three flame patterns (jet, flickering, and lifted flames) were defined behind the pure-jet nozzle. Four flame patterns (jet, flickering, bubble, and turbulent flames) were observed behind the unrifled frustum. The bluff-body frustum changes the lifted flame to turbulent flame due to a high T.I at high central-fuel velocity (uc). The experimental data showed that the grooved rifles improved the air-propane mixing, which then improved the combustion intensity. The rifled mechanism intensified the swirling effect and then the flame-temperature profiles were more uniform than those behind the pure-jet nozzle. The increased TI also resulted in the shortest flame length behind the two-faced rifled frustum and increased the total combustion intensity.

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Fig. 1

Experimental setup

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Fig. 2

Near-field flame photographs behind the pure-jet nozzle. (a)–(c) Jet flame, (d) and (e) flickering flame, (f) and (g) jet flame, and (h)–(j) lifted flame. Shutter = 1/2000 s.

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Fig. 3

Near-field flame photographs behind the unrifled frustum. (a)–(b) Jet flame, (c) flickering flame, (d) and (e) bubble flame, and (f)–(j) turbulent flame. Shutter = 1/2000 s.

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Fig. 4

Distribution of near-field flow patterns: (a) pure-jet nozzle, and (b) unrifled bluff-body frustums

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Fig. 5

Far-field color flame photographs of flame: (a) pure-jet nozzle, (b) unrifled frustum, (c) inner-rifled frustum, (d) outer-rifled frustum, and (e) two-faced rifled frustum

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Fig. 6

Variations of the nondimensionl flame length (H/D) versus the turbulence intensity (TI)

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Fig. 7

Radial temperature distributions behind the pure-jet nozzle: unrifled, inner-rifled, outer-rifled, and two-faced rifled frustums; at uc = 1.6 m/s

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Fig. 8

Central temperature distributions along the x-axis behind the pure-jet nozzle; unrifled, inner-rifled, outer-rifled, and two-faced rifled frustums

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Fig. 9

Variations of the combustion intensity (Q) along the x-axis; (a) pure-jet nozzle, (b) unrifled frustum, (c) inner-rifled frustum, (d) outer-rifled frustum, and (e) two-faced rifled frustum

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Fig. 10

Variations of the total combustion intensity (Qtot) versus the turbulence intensity (TI) behind the pure-jet nozzle; unrifled, inner-rifled, outer-rifled, and two-faced rifled frustums

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Fig. 11

Variations of the total combustion intensity (open symbols) and turbulence intensity (solid symbols) versus the nondimensional flame length (H/D)



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