Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Local Source Based CFD Modeling of Effusion Cooling Holes: Validation and Application to an Actual Combustor Test Case

[+] Author and Article Information
Antonio Andreini

Assistant Professor
e-mail: antonio.andreini@htc.de.unifi.it

Riccardo Da Soghe

e-mail: riccardo.dasoghe@htc.de.unifi.it

Bruno Facchini

Associate Professor
e-mail: bruno.facchini@htc.de.unifi.it

Lorenzo Mazzei

PhD Student
e-mail: lorenzo.mazzei@htc.de.unifi.it
Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Florence 50139, Italy

Salvatore Colantuoni

Combustion Projects Management,
Avio Aero,
Naples 80038, Italy
e-mail: salvatore.colantuoni@avioaero.com

Fabio Turrini

Technical Manager,
Combustors Product Engineering,
Avio Aero,
Turin 10040, Italy
e-mail: fabio.turrini@avioaero.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 9, 2013; final manuscript received August 29, 2013; published online October 25, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(1), 011506 (Oct 25, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1245; doi: 10.1115/1.4025316 History: Received July 09, 2013; Revised August 29, 2013

State-of-the-art liner cooling technology for modern combustion chambers is represented by effusion cooling (or full-coverage film cooling). Effusion is a very efficient cooling strategy typically based on the use of several inclined small diameter cylindrical holes, where liner temperature is controlled by the combined protective effect of coolant film and heat removal through forced convection inside each hole. A CFD-based thermal analysis of such components implies a significant computational cost if the cooling holes are included in the simulations; therefore many efforts have been made to develop lower order approaches aiming at reducing the number of mesh elements. The simplest approach models the set of holes as a uniform coolant injection, but it does not allow an accurate assessment of the interaction between hot gas and coolant. Therefore higher order models have been developed, such as those based on localized mass sources in the region of hole discharge. The model presented in this paper replaces the effusion hole with a mass sink on the cold side of the plate, a mass source on the hot side, whereas convective cooling within the perforation is accounted for with a heat sink. The innovative aspect of the work is represented by the automatic calculation of the mass flow through each hole, obtained by a run time estimation of isentropic mass flow with probe points, while the discharge coefficients are calculated at run time through an in-house developed correlation. In the same manner, the heat sink is calculated from a Nusselt number correlation available in literature for short length holes. The methodology has been applied to experimental test cases of effusion cooling plates and compared to numerical results obtained through a CFD analysis including the cooling holes, showing a good agreement. A comparison between numerical results and experimental data was performed on an actual combustor as well, in order to prove the feasibility of the procedure.

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Fig. 1

Conceptual representation of effusion hole modeling

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Fig. 2

Sketch of mass flow rate calculation

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Fig. 3

Sketch of the computational domain for detailed simulations

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Fig. 4

Results for detailed simulations (M = 5)

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Fig. 5

Effect of Max Size (G2, M = 5)

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Fig. 6

Sketch of source point application in CFX

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Fig. 7

Effect of the parameter tetra size ratio on the volume element size

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Fig. 8

Effect of tetra size ratio (G2, M = 5)

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Fig. 9

Effect of heat sink value (G2, M = 5)

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Fig. 10

Heat removal discretization on one (left) and three (right) heat sinks

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Fig. 11

Effect of blowing ratio (G2, M = 5, 3, 1.5)

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Fig. 12

Comparison of the flowfield in presence of discrete holes (up) and source points (down) (G2, first row, M = 5)

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Fig. 13

Final comparison between experimental data, source model with prescribed values and pressure drop formulation: effect of geometry (M = 5)

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Fig. 14

Final comparison between experimental data, source model with prescribed values, and pressure drop formulation: effect of blowing ratio (G2)

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Fig. 15

Flow field in the combustor meridional plane (without radiation)

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Fig. 16

Flow field in the combustor meridional plane: detail of the primary zone with velocity vectors (without radiation)

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Fig. 17

Streamwise distribution of predicted discharge coefficients

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Fig. 18

Predicted flow split within the combustor

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Fig. 19

Temperature field of the combustor (without radiation)

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Fig. 20

Temperature contour on liner and heat shield (without radiation)

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Fig. 21

Temperature profiles along heat shield and liner



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