Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Study of Microparticle Rebound Characteristics Under High Temperature Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
C. J. Reagle

e-mail: reaglecj@vt.edu

J. M. Delimont

e-mail: jacobdel@vt.edu

W. F. Ng

e-mail: wng@vt.edu

S. V. Ekkad

e-mail: sekkad@vt.edu
Virginia Tech,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Blacksburg, VA 24061

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 27, 2013; final manuscript received July 30, 2013; published online October 21, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(1), 011501 (Oct 21, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1195; doi: 10.1115/1.4025346 History: Received June 27, 2013; Revised July 30, 2013

Large amounts of tiny microparticles are ingested into gas turbines over their operating life, resulting in unexpected wear and tear. Knowledge of such microparticle behavior at gas turbine operating temperatures is limited in published literature. In this study, Arizona road dust (ARD) is injected into a hot flow field to measure the effects of high temperature and velocity on particle rebound from a polished 304 stainless steel (SS) coupon. The results are compared with baseline (27 m/s) measurements at ambient (300 K) temperature made in the Virginia Tech Aerothermal Rig, as well as previously published literature. Mean coefficient of restitution (COR) was shown to decrease with the increased temperature/velocity conditions in the VT Aerothermal Rig. The effects of increasing temperature and velocity led to a 12% average reduction in COR at 533 K (47 m/s), 15% average reduction in COR at 866 K (77 m/s), and 16% average reduction in COR at 1073 K (102 m/s) compared with ambient results. The decrease in COR appeared to be almost entirely a result of increased velocity that resulted from heating the flow. Trends show that temperature plays a minor role in energy transfer between particle and impact surface below a critical temperature.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Goldsmith, W., 2002, Impact: The Theory and Physical Behaviour of Colliding Solids, Dover Publications, Mineola, NY.
Armstrong, J. D., Collings, N., and Shayler, P. J., 1984, “Trajectory of Particles Rebounding Off Plane Targets,” AIAA, 22(2), pp. 214–218. [CrossRef]
Sommerfeld, M., and Huber, N., 1999, “Experimental Analysis and Modelling of Particle-Wall Collisions,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 25, pp. 1457–1489. [CrossRef]
Mok, C. H., and Duffy, J., 1964, “The Behaviour of Metals at Elevated Temperatures Under Impact With a Bouncing Ball,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 6, pp. 161–175. [CrossRef]
Brenner, S. S., Wriedt, H. A., and Oriani, R. A., 1981, “Impact Adhesion of Iron at Elevated Temperatures,” Wear, 68(2), pp. 169–190. [CrossRef]
Tabakoff, W., Grant, G., and Ball, R., 1974, “An Experimental Investigation of Certain Aerodynamic Effects on Erosion,” AIAA 8th Aerodynamic Testing Conference, Bethesda, MD, July 8–10, AIAA Paper No. 74-639 [CrossRef].
Grant, G., and Tabakoff, W., 1975, “Erosion Prediction in Turbomachinery Resulting From Environmental Solid Particles,” J. Aircraft, 12(5), pp. 471–478. [CrossRef]
Tabakoff, W., 1991, “Measurements of Particles Rebound Characteristics on Materials Used in Gas Turbines,” J. Propul. Power, 7(5), pp. 805–813. [CrossRef]
Tabakoff, W., Hamed, A., and Murugan, D. M., 1996, “Effect of Target Materials on the Particle Restitution Characteristics for Turbomachinery Application,” J. Propul. Power, 12(2), pp. 260–266. [CrossRef]
Finnie, I., 1960, “Erosion of Surfaces by Solid Particles,” Wear, 3(2), pp. 87–103. [CrossRef]
Wakeman, T., and Tabakoff, W., 1979, “Erosion Behavior in a Simulated Jet Engine Environment,” J. Aircraft, 16(12), pp. 828–833. [CrossRef]
Hylton, L., Nirmalan, V., Sultanian, B., and Kaufman, R., 1988, “The Effects of Leading Edge and Downstream Film Cooling on Turbine Vane Heat Transfer,” NASA Contractor Report No. 182133.
Nealy, D., Mihelc, M., Hylton, L., and Gladden, H., 1984, “Measurements of Heat Transfer Distribution Over the Surfaces of Highly Loaded Turbine Nozzle Guide Vanes,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbine Power, 106, pp. 149–158. [CrossRef]
Reagle, C. J., Delimont, J. M., Ng, W. F., and Ekkad, S. V., 2012, “A Novel Technique for Measuring the Coefficient of Restitution of Microparticle Impacts in a Forced Flowfield,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-68252.
Walsh, W. S., Thole, K. A., and Joe, C., 2006, “Effects of Sand Ingestion on the Blockage of Film-Cooling Holes,” ASME Turbo Expo 2006: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Barcelona, Spain, May 8–11, ASME Paper No. GT2006-90067, pp. 81–90 [CrossRef].
Schairer, J. F., and Bowen, N. L., 1947, “Melting Relations in the Systems Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 and K2O-Al2O3-SiO2,” Am. J. Sci., 245(4), pp. 193–204. [CrossRef]
Wenk, H.-R., and Bulakh, A., 2003, Minerals: Their Constitution and Origin, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Fischer-Cripps, A. C., 2000, Introduction to Contact Mechanics, Springer, New York.
Johnson, K. L., 1985, Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Hutchings, I. M., Macmillan, N. H., and Rickerby, D. G., 1981, “Further Studies of the Oblique Impact of a Hard Sphere Against a Ductile Solid,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 23(11), pp. 639–646. [CrossRef]
Crosby, J. M., Lewis, S., Bons, J. P., Ai, W., and Fletcher, T. H., 2008, “Effects of Temperature and Particle Size on Deposition in Land Based Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbine Power, 130(5), p. 051503. [CrossRef]
Sreedharan, S. S., and Tafti, D. K., 2011, “Composition Dependent Model for the Prediction of Syngas Ash Deposition in Turbine Gas Hotpath,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 32(1), pp. 201–211. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

VT aerothermal rig configured for sand

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of instrumentation setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Traverse 8.13 cm upstream of coupon, 533 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Temperature ratio 1.78 cm upstream of coupon

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Data points with mean and standard deviation lines plotted

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

ARD 20–40 μm results COR versus angle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

ARD 20–40 μm normal COR versus angle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

ARD 20–40 μm tangential COR versus angle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

ARD 20–40 μm COR versus velocity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

ARD 20–40 μm COR versus KE (1/2 mv2)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In