Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

An Experimental Methodology for the Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Acoustic Pressure Fields in Ducts

[+] Author and Article Information
Giovanni Ferrara

Department of Industrial Engineering of Florence,
University of Florence,
Via di Santa Marta 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: giovanni.ferrara@unifi.it

Lorenzo Ferrari

National Council of Research of Italy,
Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019,
Sesto Fiorentino,
Florence, Italy
e-mail: lorenzo.ferrari@iccom.cnr.it

Giulio Lenzi

Department of Industrial Engineering of Florence,
University of Florence,
Via di Santa Marta 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: giulio.lenzi@unifi.it

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 1, 2013; final manuscript received August 9, 2013; published online October 22, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(1), 011505 (Oct 22, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1213; doi: 10.1115/1.4025348 History: Received July 01, 2013; Revised August 09, 2013

The claim for low emission engines, imposed by strict environmental legislation, has prompted the aeronautical industry to reduce both noise emission and pollution by using lean combustion technology. These engines are often affected by acoustic instabilities that can compromise their correct functioning. A 3D acoustic wave field investigation is increasingly relevant for a correct design and comprehension of this kind of phenomena. Numerical codes are widely used for this type of analysis but an experimental validation is still required due to the complexity of the real phenomena involved in acoustic generation and propagation. While the wall acoustic pressure can be easily measured, very few examples of radial measurement for a 3D analysis can be found in research on this subject. This paper presents an example of a radial measurement of a 3D acoustic pressure field by means of a waveguide probe based on a 1/4" pressure microphone. In particular, several probe geometries were designed and calibrated on a specialized test rig. In order to verify the adopted methodology, the acoustic 3D pressure fields of two simplified geometries were measured and compared with those from a theoretical model describing the actual conditions of the test rig.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Munjal, M. L., 1987, Acoustic of Ducts and Mufflers, ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Verdon, J. M., Montgomery, M. D., and KousenK. A.,1995, Development of Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis for Turbo Machinery Blade Rows, NASA, East Hartford, CT.
Sutliff, D. L., 2005, Rotating Rake Turbofan Duct Mode Measurement System, NASA, Cleveland, OH.
Tyler, J. M., and Sofrin, T. G., 1962, “Axial Flow Compressor Noise Studies,” Trans. SAE, 70, pp. 309–332.
Holste, F., 1997, “An Equivalent Source Method for Calculation of the Sound Radiated From Aircraft Engines,” J. Sound Vib., 203(4), pp. 667–695. [CrossRef]
Fischer, A., Sauvage, E., and Röhle, I., 2008, “Acoustic PIV: Measurements of the Acoustic Particle Velocity Using Synchronized PIV-Technique,” 14th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 7–10.
Souchon, G., Gazengel, B., Richoux, O., and Le Duff, A., 2004, “Characterization of a Dipole Radiation by Laser Doppler Velocimetry,” Proceedings of the Joint Congress CFA/DAGA'04, Strasbourg, France, March 22–25, pp. 635–636.
Ferrara, G., Ferrari, L., and Sonni, G., 2005, “Experimental Characterization of a Remoting System for Dynamic Pressure Sensors,” ASME Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Reno-Tahoe, NV, June 6–9, ASME Paper No. GT2005-68733. [CrossRef]
vanOmmen, J. R., Schouten, J. C., vander Stappen, M. L., and van den Bleek, C. M., 1999, “Response Characteristics of Probe–Transducer Systems for Pressure Measurements in Gas–Solid Fluidized Beds: How to Prevent Pitfalls in Dynamic Pressure Measurements,” Powder Tech., 106, pp. 199–218. [CrossRef]
Zinn, D. H., and Habermann, D. M., 2007, “Developments and Experiences With Pulsation Measurements for Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines,” ASME Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Montreal, Canada, May 14–17, ASME Paper No. GT2007-27475. [CrossRef]
White, M. A., Dhingra, M., and Prasad, J., 2010, “Experimental Analysis of a Wave Guide Pressure Measuring System,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power, 132, p. 041603-1. [CrossRef]
Tijdeman, H., 1977, Investigation of the Transonic Flow Around Oscillating Airfoils, National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), Amsterdam.
Kinsler, L. E., and Frey, A. R., 1962, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Dowling, A., 1995, “The Calculation of Thermo-Acoustic Oscillations,” J. Sound Vib., 180(4), pp. 557–581. [CrossRef]
Davis, D. D., Stokes, G. M., Moore, D., and Stevens, G. L., 1954, “Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Mufflers With Comments on Engine-Exhaust Muffler Design,” Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Hampton, VA, NACA Report No. 1992.
Morse, P. M., and Ingard, K. U., 1968, Theoretical Acoustics, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Ross, A. F., and Seybert, A. F., 1977, “Experimental Determination of Acoustic Properties Using a Two-Microphone Random-Excitation Technique,” J. Acoust. Soc Am., 62(S1), pp. S57–S57. [CrossRef]
Bodén, H., and Abom, M., 1986, “Influence of Errors on the Two-Microphone Method for Measuring Acoustic Properties in Ducts,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 79(2), pp. 541–549. [CrossRef]
Ih, J. G., and Jang, S. H., 1998, “On the Multiple Microphone Method for Measuring In-Duct Acoustic Properties in the Presence of Mean Flow,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 103(3), pp. 1520–1526. [CrossRef]
Schultz, T., CattafestaIII, L. N., and Sheplak, M., 2006, “Modal Decomposition Method for Acoustic Impedance Testing in Square Ducts,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 120 (6), pp. 3750–3758. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic shapes of acoustic modes of a cylindrical duct

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Theoretical single modes at 4.2 kHz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

First radial and tangential mode in annular duct

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Microphone junction with the transmitting duct

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Probe calibration test rig

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison of the microphone junction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Side branch configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of the ideal muffler with a generic single chamber and a dual camber

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Schematic sketch of the reference single and double chamber mufflers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Developed mufflers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

FRF of the three mufflers probes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of the predicted FRF of the probe with the experimental calibration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Mapping measurement section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Measurement point distribution for boundaries condition evaluation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Schematic of the test rig with the speaker acoustic source

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Experimental pressure map of the wave field at 4.2 kHz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Theoretical pressure map of the wave field at 4.2 kHz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Schematic of the annular section with rotor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Decay of m=1, n=1 mode in the planar range of propagation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Reflection coefficient of the end of annular test rig

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

FFT spectrum of the flush mounted microphone

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Experimental map of the fifth BPF

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Theoretical wave field of the fifth BPF



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In