Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Three-Dimensional Chemiluminescence Imaging of Unforced and Forced Swirl-Stabilized Flames in a Lean Premixed Multi-Nozzle Can Combustor

[+] Author and Article Information
Janith Samarasinghe

e-mail: rjs5309@psu.edu

Stephen Peluso

e-mail: sjp249@psu.edu

Michael Szedlmayer

e-mail: mts244@psu.edu

Alexander De Rosa

e-mail: ajd5455@psu.edu

Bryan Quay

e-mail: bdq100@psu.edu

Domenic Santavicca

e-mail: das8@psu.edu
Center for Advanced Power Generation,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Manuscript received June 27, 2013; final manuscript received July 5, 2013; published online September 6, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(10), 101503 (Sep 06, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1194; doi: 10.1115/1.4024987 History: Received June 27, 2013; Revised July 05, 2013

A tomographic image reconstruction technique has been developed to measure the 3D distribution of CH* chemiluminescence of unforced and forced turbulent premixed flames. Measurements are obtained in a lean premixed, swirl-stabilized multi-nozzle can combustor. Line-of-sight images are acquired at equally spaced angle increments using a single intensified charge-coupled device camera. 3D images of the flames are reconstructed by applying a filtered back projection algorithm to the acquired line-of-sight images. Methods of viewing 3D images to characterize the structure, dynamics, interaction and spatial differences of multi-nozzle flames are presented. Accuracy of the reconstruction technique is demonstrated by comparing reconstructed line-of-sight images to measured line-of-sight downstream-view images of unforced flames. The effect of the number of acquired projection images on the quality of the reconstruction is assessed. The reconstructed 3D images of the unforced multi-nozzle flames show the structure of individual flames as well as the interaction regions between flames. Forced flame images are obtained by phase-synchronizing the camera to the forcing cycle. The resulting 3D reconstructions of forced flames reveal the spatial and temporal response of the multi-nozzle flame structure to imposed velocity fluctuations, information which is essential to identifying the underlying mechanisms responsible for this behavior.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Lieuwen, T., McDonell, V., Santavicca, D., and Sattelmayer, T., 2009, “Operability Issues Associated With Steady Flowing Combustors,” Gas Synthesis Combustion: Fundamentals and Applications, Taylor & Francis, London, Chap. 9.
Marton, C., 1981, Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Academic, New York.
Radon, J., 1986, “On the Determination of Functions From their Integral Values Along Certain Manifolds,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, 5(4), pp. 170–176. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Radon, J., 1917, “Über die Bestimmung von Funktionen Durch ihre Integralwerte Längs Gewisser Mannigfaltigkeiten,” Berichte über die Verhandlungen der Sächsische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Reports on the proceedings of the Saxony Academy of Science), pp. 262–277.
Ludwig, D., 1966, “The Radon Transform on Euclidean Space,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math., 19(1), pp. 49–81. [CrossRef]
Herman, G., 1995, “Image Reconstruction From Projections,” Real-Time Imag., 1(1), pp. 3–18. [CrossRef]
Bui, A., and Taira, R., 2009, Medical Imaging Informatics, Springer, New York.
Midgley, P., and Weyland, M., 2003, “3D Electron Microscopy in the Physical Sciences: The Development of Z-Contrast and EFTEM Tomography,” Ultramicroscopy, 96(3–4), pp. 413–431. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pennycook, S., 2011, Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy: Imaging and Analysis, Springer, New York.
de Hoop, M., Smith, H., Uhlmann, G., and van der Hilst, R., 2009, “Seismic Imaging With the Generalized Radon Transform,” Inverse Probl., 25(2), p. 025005. [CrossRef]
Nolet, G., 1987, Seismic Tomography: With Applications in Global Seismology and Exploration Geophysics, D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland.
Gilabert, G., Lu, G., and Yan, Y., 2005, “Three Dimensional Visualisation and Reconstruction of the Luminosity Distribution of a Flame Using Digital Imaging Techniques,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 15, pp. 167–171. [CrossRef]
Gilabert, G., Lu, G., and Yan, Y., 2007, “Three-Dimensional Tomographic Reconstruction of the Luminosity Distribution of a Combustion Flame,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 56(4), pp. 1300–1306. [CrossRef]
Hossain, M. M., Lu, G., and Yan, Y., 2011, “Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Combustion Flames Through Optical Fiber Sensing and CCD Imaging,” Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), IEEE, New York, pp. 1–5.
Brisley, P. M., Lu, G., Yan, Y., and Cornwell, S., 2005, “Three-Dimensional Temperature Measurement of Combustion Flames Using a Single Monochromatic CCD Camera,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 54(4), pp. 1417–1420. [CrossRef]
Anikin, N., Suntz, R., and Bockhorn, H., 2012, “Tomographic Reconstruction of 2D-OH*-Chemiluminescence Distributions in Turbulent Diffusion Flames,” Appl. Phys. B, 107(3), pp. 591–602. [CrossRef]
Anikin, N., Suntz, R., and Bockhorn, H., 2010, “Tomographic Reconstruction of the OH*-Chemiluminescence Distribution in Premixed and Diffusion Flames,” Appl. Phys. B, 100(3), pp. 675–694. [CrossRef]
Moeck, J. P., Bourgouin, J., Durox, D., Schuller, T., and Candel, S., 2012, “Nonlinear Interaction Between a Precessing Vortex Core and Acoustic Oscillations in a Turbulent Swirling Flame,” Combust. Flame, 159(8), pp. 2650–2668. [CrossRef]
Upton, T. D., Verhoeven, D. D., and Hudgins, D. E., 2011, “High-Resolution Computed Tomography of a Turbulent Reacting Flow,” Exp. Fluids, 50(1), pp. 125–134. [CrossRef]
Floyd, J., Geipel, P., and Kempf, A. M., 2011, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): Instantaneous 3D Measurements and Phantom Studies of a Turbulent Opposed Jet Flame,” Combust. Flame, 158(2), pp. 376–391. [CrossRef]
Floyd, J., and Kempf, A. M., 2011, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): High Resolution and Instantaneous 3-D Measurements of a Matrix Burner,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 33(1), pp. 751–758. [CrossRef]
Ishino, Y., Takeuchi, K., Shiga, S., and Ohiwa, N., 2009, “Measurement of Instantaneous 3D-Distribution of Local Burning Velocity on a Turbulent Premixed Flame by Non-Scanning 3D-CT Reconstruction,” 4th European Combustion Meeting, Vienna, Austria, April 14-17.
Ishino, Y., Ohiwa, N., 2005, “Three-Dimensional Computerized Tomographic Reconstruction of Instantaneous Distribution of Chemiluminescence of a Turbulent Premixed Flame,” JSME International Journal Series B Fluids and Thermal Engineering, 48(1), pp. 34–40. [CrossRef]
Bheemul, H., Lu, G., and Yan, Y., 2005, “Digital Imaging-Based Three-Dimensional Characterization of Flame Front Structures in a Turbulent Flame,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 54(3), pp. 1073–1078. [CrossRef]
Bheemul, H. C., Lu, G., and Yan, Y., 2002, “Three-Dimensional Visualization and Quantitative Characterization of Gaseous Flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 13(10), pp. 1643–1650. [CrossRef]
Nori, V., and Seitzman, J., 2007, “Chemiluminescence Measurements and Modeling in Syngas, Methane and Jet-A Fueled Combustors,” 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, January 8-11, AIAA Paper No. 2007-466. [CrossRef]
Nori, V., and Seitzman, J., 2008, “Evaluation of Chemiluminescence as a Combustion Diagnostic Under Varying Operating Conditions,” 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, January 7-10, AIAA Paper No. 2008-953 [CrossRef].
Lee, J. G., and Santavicca, D. A., 2003, “Experimental Diagnostics for the Study of Combustion Instabilities in Premixed Combustors,” J. Propul. Power, 19, pp. 735–750. [CrossRef]
Haber, L., Vandsberger, U., Saunders, W., and Khanna, V., 2000, “An Examination of the Relationship Between Chemiluminescence Light Emissions and Heat Release Rate Under Non-Adiabatic Conditions,” Proceedings of the International Gas Turbine Institute, Munich, Germany, May 8-11.
Ikeda, Y., Kojima, J., Nakajima, T., Akamatsu, F., and Katsuki, M., 2000, “Measurement of the Local Flame-Front Structure of Turbulent Premixed Flames by Local Chemiluminescence,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 28(1), pp. 343–350. [CrossRef]
Samaniego, J., Egolfopoulos, F., and Bowman, C., 1995, “CO2* Chemiluminescence in Premixed Flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 109, pp. 183–203. [CrossRef]
Deans, S., “Radon and Abel Transforms”, 2000, The Transforms and Applications Handbook: Second Edition, CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, Chap. 8.
Vest, C., 1974, “Formation of Images From Projections: Radon and Abel Transforms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., 64(9), pp. 1215–1218. [CrossRef]
Ji, L., and Gallo, K., 2006, “An Agreement Coefficient for Image Comparison,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens., 72(7), pp. 823–833.
Dhawan, A., 2011, “Image Reconstruction,” Medical Image Analysis, Wiley, New York, pp. 173–180.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of multi-nozzle combustor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Color photographs of the five-nozzle flame viewed from the side (a) and from the exhaust looking down into the combustor (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic drawing of multi-angle imaging setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Unforced flame projection images from two different viewing angles 0 deg (a) and 44 deg (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Linear color bar for all chemiluminescence images

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Projection images showing a horizontal bin at location “z” and (b) array of horizontal bins at location z from 4 N projection images

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Two-dimensional slice oriented perpendicular to the combustor axis obtained from inverse Radon transform

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Visualization of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the five-nozzle flame

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Vertical slices at the indicated locations: (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Horizontal slices at the indicated locations: (a), (b), (c), and (d)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Comparison of reconstructed (a) and measured (b) downstream projection images

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Two-dimensional horizontal (a) and vertical (b) slices of the three-dimensional reconstruction obtained using 46 projection images spaced every 2 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Horizontal slices of 5% forced multi-nozzle flames at 100 Hz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Vertical slices of 5% forced multi-nozzle flames at 100 Hz



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In