Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Study of Fuel Composition, Burner Material, and Tip Temperature Effects on Flashback of Enclosed Jet Flame

[+] Author and Article Information
Vincent McDonell

UCI Combustion Laboratory,
University of California,
Irvine, CA 92697-3550

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 3, 2013; final manuscript received July 22, 2013; published online September 20, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 135(12), 121504 (Sep 20, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1229; doi: 10.1115/1.4025129 History: Received July 03, 2013; Revised July 22, 2013

Flashback is a key challenge for low NOx premixed combustion of high hydrogen content fuels. Previous work on jet burner configurations has systematically investigated the impact of fuel composition on flashback propensity, and noted that burner tip temperature played an important role on flashback, yet did not quantify any specific effect (Shaffer, B., Duan, Z., and McDonell, V., 2013, “Study of Fuel Composition Effects on Flashback Using a Confined Jet Flame Burner,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power, 135(1), p. 011502). The present work further investigates the coupling of flashback with burner tip temperature and leads to models for flashback propensity as a function of parameters studied. To achieve this, a jet burner configuration with interchangeable burner materials was developed along with automated flashback detection and rim temperature monitoring. An inline heater provides preheated air up to 810 K. Key observations include that for a given condition, tip temperature of a quartz burner at flashback is higher than that of a stainless burner. As a result, the flashback propensity of a quartz tube is about double of that of a stainless tube. A polynomial model based on analysis of variance is presented and shows that, if the tip temperature is introduced as a parameter, better correlations result. A physical model is developed and illustrates that the critical velocity gradient is proportional to the laminar flame speed computed using the measured tip temperature. The addition of multiple parameters further refined the prediction of the flashback propensity, and the effects of materials are discussed qualitatively using a simple heat transfer analysis.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the definition of the critical velocity gradient [2]

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the axisymmetric single injector rig and associated supporting hardware

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the enclosure holder

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Fig. 4

Schematic of the thermocouple alignment

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Fig. 5

Critical air flow rates versus inlet temperatures with different fuels, AFTs, and injector materials (a) quartz (b) stainless steel

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Fig. 6

Tip temperatures at FB versus inlet temperatures with different fuels, AFTs, and injector materials (a) quartz (b) stainless steel

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Fig. 7

Model predicting gc without consideration of material effects

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Fig. 8

Models predicting gc: quartz tube (blue diamonds) and stainless tube (red triangles)

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Fig. 9

Models predicting gc with tip temperature instead of inlet temperature

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Fig. 10

Models predicting gc with tip temperature for nonpreheated cases

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Fig. 11

Model of single parameter correlation (laminar flame speed based on tip temperature)

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Fig. 12

gc versus the laminar flame speed calculated with tip temperature

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Fig. 13

Comparison of actual values versus predicted values by the multiparameter model (Eq. (20))

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Fig. 14

Comparison of actual values versus predicted values by the multiparameter model (Eq. (21))

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Fig. 15

Tip temperature of pure hydrogen flame without preheating

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Fig. 16

Schematic of the heat transfer within injector wall



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