Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Sensitivity of Combustion Driven Structural Dynamics and Damage to Thermo-Acoustic Instability: Combustion-Acoustics-Vibration

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Can Altunlu

Section of Applied Mechanics,
Faculty of Engineering Technology,
University of Twente,
Enschede 7500 AE, Netherlands
e-mail: altunlua2@asme.org

Peter J. M. van der Hoogt, André de Boer

Section of Applied Mechanics,
Faculty of Engineering Technology,
University of Twente,
Enschede 7500 AE, Netherlands

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 14, 2013; final manuscript received June 15, 2013; published online January 2, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(5), 051501 (Jan 02, 2014) (18 pages) Paper No: GTP-13-1009; doi: 10.1115/1.4025817 History: Received January 14, 2013; Revised June 15, 2013

The dynamic combustion process generates high amplitude pressure oscillations due to thermo-acoustic instabilities, which are excited within the gas turbine. The combustion instabilities have a significant destructive impact on the life of the liner material due to the high cyclic vibration amplitudes at elevated temperatures. This paper presents a methodology developed for mechanical integrity analysis relevant to gas turbine combustors and the results of an investigation of the combustion-acoustics-vibration interaction by means of structural dynamics. In this investigation, the combustion dynamics was found to be very sensitive to the thermal power of the system and the air-fuel ratio of the mixture fed into the combustor. The unstable combustion caused a dominant pressure peak at a characteristic frequency, which is the first acoustic eigenfrequency of the system. Besides, the higher-harmonics of this peak were generated over a wide frequency-band. The frequencies of the higher-harmonics were observed to be close to the structural eigenfrequencies of the system. The structural integrity of both the intact and damaged test specimens mounted on the combustor was monitored by vibration-based and thermal-based techniques during the combustion operation. The flexibility method was found to be accurate to detect, localize, and identify the damage. Furthermore, a temperature increase was observed around the damage due to hot gas leakage from the combustor that can induce detrimental thermal stresses enhancing the lifetime consumption.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Lieuwen, T., Torres, H., Johnson, C., and Zinn, B. T., 2001, “A Mechanism of Combustion Instability in Lean Premixed Gas Turbine Combustors,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 123(1), pp. 182–189. [CrossRef]
Rayleigh, J. W. S., and Lindsay, R. B., 1945, The Theory of Sound, Dover, New York.
Crocker, D. S., Nickolaus, D., and Smith, C. E., 1999, “CFD Modeling of a Gas Turbine Combustor From Compressor Exit to Turbine Inlet,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 121(1), pp. 89–95. [CrossRef]
Rao, M. S., and Sivaramakrishna, G., 2009, “Performance Improvement of an Aero Gas Turbine Combustor,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59928. [CrossRef]
Kim, W.-W., Van Slooten, P. R., Malecki, R. E., Syed, S., Colket, M. B., and Lienau, J. J., 2006, “Towards Modeling Lean Blow Out in Gas Turbine Flameholder Applications,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 128(1), pp. 40–48. [CrossRef]
McGuirk, J. J., and Spencer, A., 2001, “Coupled and Uncoupled CFD Prediction of the Characteristics of Jets From Combustor Air Admission Ports,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 123(2), pp. 327–332. [CrossRef]
Bain, D. B., Smith, C. E., Liscinsky, D. S., and Holdeman, J. D., 1999, “Flow Coupling Effects in Jet-in-Crossflow Flowfields,” J. Propul. Power, 15(1), pp. 10–16. [CrossRef]
Tinga, T., van Kampen, J. F., de Jager, B., and Kok, J. B. W., 2007, “Gas Turbine Combustor Liner Life Assessment Using a Combined Fluid/Structural Approach,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 129(1), pp. 69–79. [CrossRef]
Bradley, D., Gaskell, P. H., Gu, X. J., Lawes, M., and Scott, M. J., 1998, “Premixed Turbulent Flame Instability and NO Formation in a Lean-Burn Swirl Burner,” Combust. Flame, 115(4), pp. 515–538. [CrossRef]
Cohen, J. C., and Anderson, T., 1996, “Experimental Investigation of Near-Blowout Instabilities in a Lean, Premixed Step Combustion,” AIAA 34th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, January 15–18, AIAA Paper No. 96-0819. [CrossRef]
Dowling, A. P., and Stow, S. R., 2003, “Acoustic Analysis of Gas Turbine Combustors,” J. Propul. Power, 5(19), pp. 751–763. [CrossRef]
Krebs, W., Flohr, P., Prade, B., and Hoffmann, S., 2002, “Thermoacoustic Stability Chart for High Intense Gas Turbine Combustion Systems,” Combustion Sci. Technol., 174, pp. 99–128. [CrossRef]
Hubbard, S., and Dowling, A. P., 2001, “Acoustic Resonances of an Industrial Gas Turbine Combustion System,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 123(4), pp. 766–773. [CrossRef]
McManus, K. R., Poinsot, T., and Candel, S. M., 1993, “A Review of Active Control of Combustion Instabilities,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 19(1), pp. 1–29. [CrossRef]
Lieuwen, T., 2003, “Modeling Premixed Combustion-Acoustic Wave Interactions: A Review,” J. Propul. Power, 19(5), pp. 765–781. [CrossRef]
Tufano, S., Stopford, P., Roman Casado, J. C., and Kok, J. B. W., 2012, “Modelling Flame-Generated Noise in a Partially Premixed, Bluff Body Stabilized Model Combustor,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-69501. [CrossRef]
Junger, M. C., and Feit, D., 1972, Sound, Structures, and Their Interaction, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
Fahy, F., and Gardonio, P., Sound and Structural Vibration—Radiation, Transmission and Response, 2nd ed., Elsevier, New York.
Huls, R. A., van Kampen, J. F., van der Hoogt, P. J. M., Kok, J. B. W., and de Boer, A., 2008, “Acoustoelastic Interaction in Combustion Chambers: Modeling and Experiments,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 130(5), p. 051505. [CrossRef]
Huls, R. A., Sengissen, A. X., van der Hoogt, P. J. M., Kok, J. B. W., Poinsot, T., and de Boer, A., 2007, “Vibration Prediction in Combustion Chambers by Coupling Finite Elements and Large Eddy Simulations,” J Sound Vib, 304(1–2), pp. 224–229. [CrossRef]
Khatir, Z., Pozarlik, A. K., Cooper, R. K., Watterson, J. W., and Kok, J. B. W., 2008, “Numerical Study of Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction for Combustion System,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluis, 56(8), pp. 1343–1349. [CrossRef]
Alemela, R., Roman Casado, J. C., Kumar, S., and Kok, J., 2011, “Simulation of Limit Cycle Pressure Oscillation With Coupled Fluid-Structure Interactions in a Model Combustor,” 18th International Congress on Sound and Vibration (ICSV 18), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 10–14.
Shahi, M., Kok, J. B. W., and Alemela, P. R., 2012, “Simulation of 2-Way Fluid Structure Interaction in a 3D Model Combustor,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-69681. [CrossRef]
Altunlu, A. C., Shahi, M., Pozarlik, A., van der Hoogt, P. J. M., Kok, J. B. W., and de Boer, A., 2012, “Fluid-Structure Interaction on the Combustion Instability,” 19th International Congress on Sound and Vibration (ICSV 2012), Vilnius, Lithuania, July 8–12.
Visser, R., 2004, “A Boundary Element Approach to Acoustic Radiation and Source Identification,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.
Blevins, R. D., 2001, Formulas for Natural Frequency and Mode Shape, Robert E. Krieger, Malabar, FL.
Cook, R. D., Malkus, D. S., and Plesha, M. E., 2002, Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis, Wiley, New York.
ANSYS® Academic Research, “Help System: Acoustics,” Release 14.0, Ansys, Inc.
Cawley, P., and Adams, R. D., 1979, “The Location of Defects in Structures From Measurements of Natural Frequencies,” J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des., 14(2), pp. 49–57. [CrossRef]
Stubbs, N., and Osegueda, R., 1990, “Global Non-Destructive Damage Evaluation in Solids,” Int. J. Anal. Exp. Modal Anal., 5, pp. 67–79.
Salawu, O. S., 1997, “Detection of Structural Damage Through Changes in Frequency: A Review,” Eng. Struct., 19(9), pp. 718–723. [CrossRef]
West, W. M., 1986, “Illustration of the Use of Modal Assurance Criterion to Detect Structural Changes in an Orbiter Test Specimen,” 4th International Modal Analysis Conference, Los Angeles, CA, February 3–6, pp. 1–6.
Mayes, R. L., 1992, “Error Localization Using Mode Shapes—An Application to a Two Link Robot Arm,” 10th International Modal Analysis Conference, San Diego, CA, February 3–6, pp. 886–891.
Stubbs, N., Kim, J. T., and Farrar, C. R., 1995, “Field Verification of a Nondestructive Damage Localization and Severity Estimation Algorithm,” 13th International Modal Analysis Conference, Nashville, TN, February 13–16, pp. 210–218.
Ooijevaar, T. H., Loendersloot, R., Warnet, L. L., de Boer, A., and Akkerman, R., 2010, “Vibration Based Structural Health Monitoring of a Composite T-Beam,” Composite Struct., 92(9), pp. 2007–2015. [CrossRef]
Toksoy, T., and Aktan, A. E., 1994, “Bridge-Condition Assessment by Modal Flexibility,” Exp. Mech., 34(3), pp. 271–278. [CrossRef]
Pandey, A. K., and Biswas, M., 1994, “Damage Detection in Structures Using Changes in Flexibility,” J. Sound Vib., 169(1), pp. 3–17. [CrossRef]
Pandey, A. K., and Biswas, M., 1995, “Damage Diagnosis of Truss Structures by Estimation of Flexibility Change,” Modal Anal., 10(2), pp. 104–117.
Doebling, S. W., Farrar, C. R., Prime, M. B., and Shevitz, D. W., 1996, “Damage Identification and Health Monitoring of Structural and Mechanical Systems From Changes in Their Vibration Characteristics: A Literature Review,” Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, Report No. LA-13070-MS.
Aktan, A. E., Lee, K. L., Chuntavan, C., and Aksel, T., 1994, “Modal Testing for Structural Identification and Condition Assessment of Constructed Facilities,” 12th International Modal Analysis Conference, Honolulu, HI, January 31–February 3, pp. 462–468.
Doebling, S. W., Farrar, C. R., and Goodman, R. S., 1997, “Effects of Measurement Statistics on the Detection of Damage in the Alamosa Canyon Bridge,” 15th International Modal Analysis Conference, Orlando, FL, February 3–6, pp. 919–929.
Farrar, C. R., Doebling, S. W., Cornwell, P. J., and Straser, E. G., 1997, “Variability of Modal Parameters Measured on the Alamosa Canyon Bridge,” 15th International Modal Analysis Conference, Orlando, FL, February 3–6, pp. 257–263.
Altunlu, A. C., van der Hoogt, P., and de Boer, A., 2011, “Life Assessment by Fracture Mechanics Analysis and Damage Monitoring Technique on Combustion Liners,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-46107. [CrossRef]
Berman, A., and Flannell, W. G., 1971, “Theory of Incomplete Models of Dynamic Structures,” AIAA J., 9(8), pp. 1481–1487. [CrossRef]
Adams, R. D., Cawley, P., Pye, C. J., and Stone, B. J., 1978, “A Vibration Technique for Non-Destructively Assessing the Integrity of Structures,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 20(2), pp. 93–100. [CrossRef]
Huls, R. A., 2006, “Acousto-Elastic Interaction in Combustion Chambers,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.
Roman Casado, J. C., Alemela, P. R., and Kok, J. B. W., 2011, “Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effect of Acoustic Time Delays on Combustion Stability,” 18th International Congress on Sound and Vibration (ICSV 18), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 10–14.
Haynes International, 2003, “High-Temperature Tech Brief: HAYNES® 230® Alloy,” http://www.haynesintl.com/pdf/h3060.pdf
Haynes International, “HAYNES® HR-120TM Alloy,” http://www.haynesintl.com/pdf/h3125.pdf
Roman Casado, J. C., and Kok, J. B. W., 2012, “Non-Linear Effects in a Lean Partially Premixed Combustor During Limit Cycle Operation,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-69164. [CrossRef]
Lieuwen, T., and Neumeier, Y., 2002, “Nonlinear Pressure-Heat Release Transfer Function Measurements in a Premixed Combustor,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 29(1), pp. 99–105. [CrossRef]
Seo, S., 2003, “Combustion Instability Mechanism of a Lean Premixed Gas Turbine Combustor,” KSME Int. J., 17(6), pp. 906–913. [CrossRef]
Lefebvre, A. H., and Ballal, D. R., 2010, Gas Turbine Combustion: Alternative Fuels and Emissions, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
Damkohler, G., 1939, “The Effect of Turbulence on the Flame Velocity in Gas Mixtures,” Z. Elektrochem., 46(11), pp. 601–626 (English translation: NACA Tech. Mem. No. 1112, 1947).
Schelkin, K. I., 1943, “On Combustion in a Turbulent Flow,” J. Tech. Physics (USSR) Vol. XIII(9–10), pp. 520–530 (English translation: NACA Tech. Mem. No. 1110, 1947).
Blackstock, D. T., 2000, Fundamentals of Physical Acoustics, Wiley, New York.
Palmonella, M., Friswell, M. I., Mottershead, J. E., and Lees, A. W., 2005, “Finite Element Models of Spot Welds in Structural Dynamics: Review and Updating,” Comput. Struct., 83(8–9), pp. 648–661. [CrossRef]
Link, L. R., 1990, “Fatigue Crack Growth of Weldments,” Fatigue and Fracture Testing of Weldments (ASTM STP 1058), Sparks, NV, April 25, 1988, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 16–33, ASTM Paper No. STP24088S. [CrossRef]
Bucci, R. J., 1981, “Effect of Residual Stress on Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Measurements,” 13th National Symposium on Fracture Mechanics (ASTM STP 743), Philadelphia, PA, June 16–18, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 28–47, ASTM Paper No. STP28789S. [CrossRef]
Kim, K. M., Yun, N., Jeon, Y. H., Lee, D. H., and Cho, H. H., 2010, “Failure Analysis in After Shell Section of Gas Turbine Combustion Liner Under Base-Load Operation,” Eng. Failure Anal., 17(4), pp. 848–856. [CrossRef]
Bhalla, K. S., Zehnder, A. T., and Han, X., 2003, “Thermomechanics of Slow Stable Crack Growth: Closing the Loop Between Experiments and Computational Modeling,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 70(17), pp. 2439–2458. [CrossRef]
Shih, C. F., Moran, B., and Nakamura, T., 1986, “Energy Release Rate Along a Three-Dimensional Crack Front in a Thermally Stressed Body,” Int. J. Fract., 30(2), pp. 79–102. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The feedback mechanism of the thermo-acoustic instabilities in combustion processes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The dimensions and the configuration of the aero-box

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Experimental (above) and numerical (below) results for the mode shapes of the intact plate configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Sensitivity analysis on the eigenfrequencies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Damage sensitivity of mode shapes (top: intact and bottom: damaged)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Damage localization by the flexibility method

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Combustor test system: (a) and (b) single, and (c) double liner configurations (upstream section (S1), flame-box (S2), and a rectangular liner (S3 and S4))

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Combustor flame-box and wedge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Temperature dependence of the material properties

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Flame-box assembly and specimen configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Laser surface scan on the damaged specimen mounted in the flame-box

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Schematic representation of the structural condition monitoring system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Pressure spectrum of the combustor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Stability map for the double liner configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Liner surface temperature profile and flame profile for (a) case 12, stable, and (b) case 22, unstable

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Mode shapes of the single liner configuration (top: experiment; bottom: FEM)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

First two plate modes in the double liner configurations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Time signal and autospectrum of the acoustic pressure and velocity of the wall (case 22): (the measurement locations are shown in parentheses)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

SPL inside the combustor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Velocity amplitude of the liner wall

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

SPL and the velocity amplitude of the liner wall

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Measurement grid (9 × 9: υnode no.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Cross-correlations of the pressure (at p7) and the velocity of the diagonal-nodes (υnode#) of the intact (left) and damaged (right) specimen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Laser zigzag path generation and nodal surface scanning grid and structural vibrations comparison

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

Structural response to instability peaks

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 26

Damage localization due to the change in the flexibility matrix

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 27

Temperature evolution on the intact (above) and damaged (below) specimens



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In